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Rock glaciers, Entremont, Valais, Switzerland

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Entry ID

GGD290

Summary

The Entremont area is 300 square km wide and located in the western part of the Swiss Alps between the Mont-Blanc Massif and the Valaisian Alps, slightly north of the main crest of the alpine range. Altitude varies between 4313 m above see level (asl) at the top of the Grand-Combin and 714 m asl for the outlet of the valleys system. The geological composition is essentially dominated by metamorphic rocks (gneiss, shale, quartzite), however some sedimentary layers (limestone, dolomite) are inserted. The mean annual air temperature is about 0 C at 2300 m asl and annual precipitation among ranges between 1000 and 1500 mm at 2000 m asl with a maximum value of about 2000 mm on the alpine crest (Grand-St-Bernard pass). Equilibrium line of glaciers is over 3000 m asl in the north-facing slopes, the timberline is at about 2100 m asl and permafrost creeping features exist between 2000 and 3000 m asl, what results in a great variety of mountain and morphological landscapes.

Aerial photographs analyses and field morphological observations have been performed during summer 1995 in order to inventory and map (1 to 25000) 321 well-developed to embryonic rock glaciers and protalus lobes (coexisting features have been separated) of total area 10.4 square. km. Rock glacier activity classification results from interpretation of both geomorphological and environmental signs. Some geophysics (BTS measurements and DC resistivity soundings) have been performed between 1995 and 1997 on a few rock glaciers in order to confirm the initial interpretation. Data described in this file on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998, are-- 1. Location (X, Y)-- Swiss coordinates near the center of the feature. 2. Front elevation (Z)-- Elevation (m a.s.l.) at the foot of the front (accuracy: 10 m). 3. Length-- Maximal distance (m) between front and roots (accuracy: 10 - 20%). 4. Width-- Mean width (m) of the feature (accuracy: 10%). 5. Orientation-- Global exposition of the rock glacier. 6. Activity-- Interpretation by field indicators observation, only in a few cases by geophysics. 7. Surface (ha)-- Calculated by 1 to 25,000 numerical mapping (accuracy: 5 - 10%). 8. Origin-- Talus or moraine (debris) derived rock glacier ?

Other information such as lithology, spring temperature, vegetation cover, inclination, roots elevation are partly available, but not described in the present data set.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 46.083°     S: 45.85°     E: 7.317°     W: 7.083°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Delaloye, R, E. Reynard, and L.Wenker
Dataset Title: Rock glaciers, Entremont, Valais, Switzerland
Dataset Release Date: 1998-01-01
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd290.html

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1995-01-01
Stop Date: 1997-12-31

Location Keywords

  • CONTINENT EUROPE WESTERN EUROPE SWITZERLAND ENTREMONT, CENTRAL AND WESTERN ALPS, VALAIS, SWITZERLAND

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Frozen Ground Permafrost
  • Cryosphere Frozen Ground Rock Glaciers
  • Cryosphere Snow/Ice Snow/Ice Temperature
  • Land Surface Frozen Ground Permafrost
  • Land Surface Frozen Ground Rock Glaciers

Ancillary Keywords

  • BTS Measurements
  • Field Investigations
  • Geophysics
  • Mapping
  • Remote Sensing
  • Rock Glaciers

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Frozen Ground Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/

Data Center Personnel

Name: FGDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Personnel

Reynald Delaloye
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 41 26 300 90 21
Phone: 41 26 300 90 10
Fax: 41 26 300 97 46
Email: Reynald.Delaloye@unifr.ch
Contact Address:

  • University of Fribourg
  • Department of Geosciences
  • Perolles

City: Fribourg
Postal Code: CH-1700
Country: Switzerland

Sonia Morand
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 41 26 3009010
Fax: 41 26 3009746
Contact Address:

  • University of Fribourg
  • Institute of Geography

City: Fribourg
Postal Code: CH-1700
Country: Switzerland

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 1998-01-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-08-29

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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