Entry_ID: GGD286
Entry_Title: Rock glaciers, Bernese Alps, western Switzerland
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Imhof, M.
   Dataset_Title: Rock glaciers, Bernese Alps, western Switzerland
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd286.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Markus
   Last_Name: Imhof
   Email: imhof@giub.unibe.ch
   Phone: 41 31 631 8567 
   Fax:  41 31 631 8511 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: ersit of Bern
      Address: Institute of Geography, Group for Applied
      Address: Hallerstrasse 12
      City: Bern
      Postal_Code: CH-3012
      Country: Switzerland
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Keyword: Field Investigations
Keyword: Mapping
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1992-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1994-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 46.167
   Northernmost_Latitude: 46.833
   Westernmost_Longitude: 7.167
   Easternmost_Longitude: 8.5
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: EUROPE
   Location_Subregion1: WESTERN EUROPE
   Location_Subregion2: SWITZERLAND
   Detailed_Location: BERNESE ALPS, WESTERN SWITZERLAND
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Summary

   This inventory has been established from the results of the interpretation of 
   aerial photographs and field work between 1992 and 1994.

   The area investigated covers the entire Bernese Alps (western Switzerland),  
   about 4200 km2, and is situated between 46 deg 10' and 46 deg 50' N and  7 deg 
   10' and 8 deg 30' E. The Bernese Alps are one of the main European watersheds, 
   separating the catchment area of the Aare (draining into the North Sea via the 
   Rhine) from that of the Rhone (which flows into the Mediterranean Sea). The 
   lowest points of the study area are situated in the valley floors of the two 
   rivers at about 500 m asl, whereas several summits exceed 4000 m asl (highest 
   point-- Finsteraarhorn, 4273 m asl). The main structure of the Bernese Alps is 
   the crystalline Aar massif striking WSW-ENE and culminating in the western 
   part of the study area. To the north and the west, the massif is covered by 
   thrust nappes consisting of sedimentary rocks mainly of Mesozoic and early 
   Tertiary age (chiefly marine limestones, shales, and sandstones). Their 
   summits are considerably lower (mostly between 2000 and 3500 m asl).

   According to their geographic situation between 46 deg and 47 deg N, the 
   climate of the Bernese Alps is of temperate character typical for the zone of 
   the westerlies. Because of the their horizontal and vertical extension, the 
   Alps themselves have considerable influence on the climate. Based on climatic 
   criteria, two main realms can be distinguished: the moist and quite oceanic 
   part in the north of the main watershed and the slightly more continental part 
   sloping south to the Rhone. The northern part, exposed to the westerlies, 
   shows maximum precipitation during summer, with quite low variability, whereas 
   the south is somewhat dryer, showing no distinct maximum but higher 
   variability. Accordingly, mean cloudiness is higher in the north. This results 
   in an increase in the height of the mean glacier elevation from about 2500 m 
   asl in the northern part of the Bernese Alps to 2900 m asl in the south. 
   Because of the high precipitation (locally exceeding 4000 mm per year) and 
   their external situation, the Bernese Alps show a lower equilibrium line of 
   the glaciers and are the mountain group showing the heaviest glacierization of 
   the Alps, which leaves little space for periglacial phenomena (both the 
   glacier showing the lowermost front and the largest glacier of the Alps are 
   situated within the study site). However, this does not mean that permafrost 
   is rare in the Bernese Alps; above 3300 m asl, permafrost can be considered as 
   continuous. In fact, the bedrock of many of the higher mountains in the 
   Bernese Alps is perennially frozen. The number of rock glaciers found in the 
   Bernese Alps is relatively small compared with other Alpine regions. 
   Furthermore, the objects are quite small. This can be explained with the 
   stronger glacierization. Modelling shows that permafrost ground amounts to 
   roughly half as much as the glacierized area (subglacial permafrost not 
   included). (Imhof, 1996)  These data are presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 
   CD-ROM, June 1998.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-29
DIF_Revision_History: added creator / publisher info