Entry_ID: GGD284
Entry_Title: Rock glaciers from Norway and Svalbard
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Sollid, J.L., B. Etzelmuller, and L. Soerbel
   Dataset_Title: Rock glaciers from Norway and Svalbard
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd284.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Data Author
   First_Name: Ivar
   Last_Name: Berthling
   Phone: 47 228 55869 
   Fax:  42 228 57230 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Oslo
      Address: Department of Physical Geography
      Address: PO Box 1042, Blindern
      City: Oslo
      Postal_Code: N-0316
      Country: Norway
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Johan Ludvig
   Last_Name: Sollid
   Email: j.l.sollid@geografi.uio.no
   Phone: 47 228 55869 
   Fax:  42 228 57230 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Oslo
      Address: Department of Physical Geography
      Address: PO Box 1042, Blindern
      City: Oslo
      Postal_Code: N-0316
      Country: Norway
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Leif
   Last_Name: Soerbel
   Email: leif.sorbel@geografi.iuo.no
   Phone: 47 228 55869 
   Fax:  42 228 57230 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Oslo
      Address: Department of Physical Geography
      Address: PO Box 1042, Blindern
      City: Oslo
      Postal_Code: N-0316
      Country: Norway
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Bernd
   Last_Name: Etzelmuller
   Email: bernd.etzelmuller@geografi.uio.no
   Email: bernde@geo.uio.no
   Phone: 47 228 55869 
   Fax:  42 228 57230 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Oslo
      Address: Department of Physical Geography
      Address: PO Box 1042, Blindern
      City: Oslo
      Postal_Code: N-0316
      Country: Norway
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Keyword: Geophysics
Keyword: GIS
Keyword: Mapping
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1985-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1997-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 58
   Northernmost_Latitude: 81
   Westernmost_Longitude: 10
   Easternmost_Longitude: 31
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: EUROPE
   Location_Subregion1: NORTHERN EUROPE
   Location_Subregion2: SCANDANAVIA
   Location_Subregion3: NORWAY
   Detailed_Location: RONDANE MOUNTAIN AREA OF SOUTHERN NORWAY; COASTAL NORTHERN
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Summary

   A complete inventory of rock glaciers on mainland Norway and Svalbard has only 
   been carried out in connection with coarse geomorphological mapping. The data 
   presented here are therefore averaged on a regional scale. Some detailed 
   geomorpholgical maps exist, however, where more detailed information can be 
   extracted. The data listed are therefore not a complete database of Norwegian 
   rock glaciers. Recently detailed studies have been carried out on rockglaciers 
   in the Ny Alesund and the Longyearbyen areas on Svalbard. From these studies, 
   detailed data are available.

   On mainland Norway, there are at least 150 rock glaciers (Sollid and Sorbel 
   1992) . These may be grouped as follows: 1. Probably active rock glaciers in 
   high mountain areas in southern and northern Norway. Most of these are 
   situated in the Rondane mountain area of southern Norway. 2. Relict rock 
   glaciers in low-lying areas near the coast of northern Norway. These rock 
   glaciers have a position marginal to the Weichselian ice sheet and were formed 
   during permafrost conditions before or during deglaciation. 3. Relict rock 
   glaciers in higher inland areas of northern Norway. These rock glaciers are 
   believed to have formed under permafrost conditions during deglaciation 
   possibly because of rock falls caused by tectonic activity during isostatic 
   uplift. On Svalbard, there are at least 500 rock glaciers (Kristiansen and 
   Sollid 1986). Most of these are situated on the central and western part of 
   Spitsbergen. They are most common in coastal areas, often below the steep 
   escarpment which delimits the inner part of the strandflat. As Svalbard has 
   continuous permafrost, most of these are probably active. Some may however be 
   inactive, as for instance the rock glaciers at Stuphallet near Ny Alesund 
   (Sollid and Sorbel 1992). In those cases, the rock glaciers have moved out of 
   its source area and onto the strandflat. 

   Partly in cooperation with ETH-Zurich, detailed investigations have been 
   started in the Ny Alesund area, Western Spitsbergen. These investigations have 
   been enlarged also to the Longyearbyen area, central Spitsbergen. Principal 
   methods have been velocity measurements, using theodolite/EDM, GPS and 
   photogrammetry; geophysical methods (DC resistivity soundings, seismic 
   refraction soundings, gravimetry and georadar); and morphometrical analysis 
   using a Digital Elevation Model and a grid-based GIS. Typical velocities are 
   between 5 and 10 cm/year, both for lobate and tongue-shaped rock glaciers. 
   These data are presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-29
DIF_Revision_History: added creator/publisher info