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Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile

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Metadata Entity Set Information:

Language:

eng; usa

Character Set:

Value: UTF8
CodeList: MD_CharacterSetCode

Hierarchy Level:

Value: dataset
CodeList: MD_ScopeCode

Hierarchy Level Name:

Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile

Contact:

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: Klaus Kammer
Organization Name: University of Bern
Contact:

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: Hallerstrasse 12
City: Bern
Postal Code: CH-3012
Country: Switzerland
Email: jenny@giub.unibe.ch or imhof@giub.unibe.ch

Contact Online Resources:

Website: http://nsidc.org

Contact Role:

Value: principalInvestigator
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Date Stamp:

2014-07-25

Metadata Standard Name:

ISO 19115 Geographic Information - Metadata First Edition

Metadata Standard Version:

ISO 19115:2003

Dataset URI:

http://nsidc.org/data/ggd282.html

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Data Identification Information:

Citation:

Citation Information:

Title: Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile
Date:
Date: 1998
Date Type:
Value: publication
CodeList: CI_DateTypeCode
Edition Date: 1998-01-01
Identifier: GGD282
Cited Responsible Party:

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: NSIDC User Services
Organization Name: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Contact:

Contact Phone:

Contact Voice Telephone: 1 303 492-6199

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: National Snow and Ice Data Center
City: Boulder
Administrative Area: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org

Contact Online Resources:

Website: http://nsidc.org

Contact Role:

Value: custodian
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: FGDC User Services
Organization Name: Frozen Ground Data Center
Contact:

Contact Phone:

Contact Voice Telephone: 1 303 492-6199 x

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: National Snow and Ice Data Center
City: Boulder
Administrative Area: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org

Contact Online Resources:

Website: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/

Contact Role:

Value: custodian
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Abstract:

The research area is located along a transect from 18 deg S to 29 deg S in the Chilean Altiplano, the western part of the high intramontane plateau in the Central Andes. This region is located in an extremely arid zone between the tropical and westerly circulation belt. The so-called 'Andean Dry Diagonal' crosses the research area from NW to SE. Over 120 rock glaciers have been mapped from chosen test sites using aerial photographs. Several rock glaciers were visited in the field to compare the results. From the collected data (height above sea level, exposition, activity, latitude) we tried to conclude (paleo-)climatic implications. The distribution was compared with summer and winter precipitation patterns of the research area. The highest number of observed rock glaciers appears in the north and very south of the transect--18 and 29 deg S. Between 23 and 27 deg S there is a sharp decline in the number of rock glaciers. It coincides with the present-day position of the 'Dry Diagonal' in the Western Andes. Most of the mountains in this section have no rock glaciers, although there is sufficient debris supply available. Focusing on activity, altitude, and latitude of the observed rock glaciers north of 24 deg S, respectively, south of 27 deg S there is a domination of active and inactive rock glaciers in comparison to relict rock glaciers. On the other hand, there are no active rock glaciers between 24 and 27 deg S. In this part, relict rock glaciers can lie 800 m higher than the estimated annual 0-degree C isotherm. If we compare rock glacier activity and number with the precipitation pattern of the area we note that the biggest number of active rock glaciers lie in the region with highest precipitation rates. In the driest part of the test area where the Andean Dry Diagonal crosses the Western Andes there are no active rock glaciers. They can be found in areas with estimated annual precipitation rates of 200 mm and more. Most of the observed rock glaciers lie in ice free cirques. These were probably built up after, or at, the time of a general ice decay. For the northern part between 18 and 24 deg S, we suggest glacier advances during the so-called Tauca-phase at 12,000-8,000 yr BP. The majority of the rock glaciers in this area can only have formed after 8,000 yr BP. In the southern part of the research area at 29 deeg S, we dated a late Holocene glacier advance at 2,600 yr BP, and thus rock glaciers must have formed at the time of the general ice decay after 2,600 yr BP. The altitude of active rock glaciers in the Chilean Andes between 18 and 29 deg S corresponds to the trend of the annual degree C isotherm, with a sharp interruption in the driest zone between 24 and 27 deg S. In this part with less than 100 mm precipitation/yr, the annual 0-degree C isotherm has no control on rock glacier activity -- the observed relict and inactive rock glaciers lie distinctly higher. The driest zone of the research area corresponds with the area with a striking reduction of number of rock glaciers and also coincides with the zone where no active rock glaciers could be found. We conclude that the so-called 'Andean Dry Diagonal' cannot have changed significantly it's position since the time when the rock glaciers were formed, probably in the middle and late Holocene. But we assume an intensification of precipitation to form rock glaciers in the driest part of the research area. These data are presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998.

Purpose:

Scientific Research

Credit:

The following example shows how to cite the use of this data set in a publication. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Kammer, K. 1998. Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile. [indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Status:

Value: complete
CodeList: MD_ProgressCode

Point of Contact:

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: Klaus Kammer
Organization Name: University of Bern
Contact:

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: Hallerstrasse 12
City: Bern
Postal Code: CH-3012
Country: Switzerland
Email: jenny@giub.unibe.ch or imhof@giub.unibe.ch

Contact Role:

Value: principalInvestigator
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Maintenance Information:

Maintenance and Update Frequency:

Value: asNeeded
CodeList: MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode

Update Scope:

Value: dataset
CodeList: MD_ScopeCode

Value: series
CodeList: MD_ScopeCode

Value: attribute
CodeList: MD_ScopeCode

Contact:

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: Klaus Kammer
Organization Name: University of Bern
Contact:

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: Hallerstrasse 12
City: Bern
Postal Code: CH-3012
Country: Switzerland
Email: jenny@giub.unibe.ch or imhof@giub.unibe.ch

Contact Online Resources:

Website: http://nsidc.org

Contact Role:

Value: principalInvestigator
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Descriptive Keywords:

Keywords

Keyword: Continent > South America > Chile > Chilean Altiplano, Western (Chilean) Andes
Keyword Type:
Value: place
CodeList: MD_KeywordTypeCode
Keyword Thesaurus:

Citation Information:

Title: NASA / GCMD Location Keywords
Date:
Date: 2008-02-05
Date Type:
Value: revision
CodeList: CI_DateTypeCode

Keywords

Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Frozen Ground > Ground Ice
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Frozen Ground > Periglacial Processes
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Frozen Ground > Permafrost
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Cryosphere > Frozen Ground > Rock Glaciers
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Land Surface > Frozen Ground > Ground Ice
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Land Surface > Frozen Ground > Periglacial Processes
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Land Surface > Frozen Ground > Permafrost
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Land Surface > Frozen Ground > Rock Glaciers
Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Paleoclimate > Land Records > Glaciation
Keyword Type:
Value: discipline
CodeList: MD_KeywordTypeCode
Keyword Thesaurus:

Citation Information:

Title: NASA / GCMD Science Keywords
Date:
Date: 2008-02-05
Date Type:
Value: revision
CodeList: CI_DateTypeCode

Keywords

Keyword Type:
Value: theme
CodeList: MD_KeywordTypeCode
Keyword Thesaurus:

Citation Information:

Title: None
Date:
Date: 2008-01-24
Date Type:
Value: revision
CodeList: CI_DateTypeCode

Keywords

Keyword: Ground Ice
Keyword: Mapping
Keyword: Paleoclimate
Keyword: Periglacial Processes
Keyword: Permafrost Properties
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Keyword Type:
Value: theme
CodeList: MD_KeywordTypeCode

Dataset Constraints:

Legal Constraints:

Access Constraints:

Value: otherRestrictions
CodeList: MD_RestrictionCode

Use Constraints:

Value: otherRestrictions
CodeList: MD_RestrictionCode

Other Constraints:

Access Constraints : none

Use Constraints : none

Language:

eng; usa

Character Set:

Value: UTF8
CodeList: MD_CharacterSetCode

Extent Information:

Spatial Temporal Extent:

Geographic Element:

Bounding Coordinates:

 

Westbound Longitude: -72
Eastbound Longitude: -67
Southbound Latitude: -29
Northbound Latitude: -18

Temporal Element:

Time Period:

Begin Position: Unknown
End Position: Unknown

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Distribution Information:

Distributor Information:

Distributor Contact:

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: NSIDC User Services
Organization Name: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Contact:

Contact Phone:

Contact Voice Telephone: 1 303 492-6199

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: National Snow and Ice Data Center
City: Boulder
Administrative Area: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org

Contact Online Resources:

Website: http://nsidc.org

Contact Role:

Value: custodian
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Responsible Party:

Individual Name: FGDC User Services
Organization Name: Frozen Ground Data Center
Contact:

Contact Phone:

Contact Voice Telephone: 1 303 492-6199 x

Contact Address:

Delivery Point: National Snow and Ice Data Center
City: Boulder
Administrative Area: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org

Contact Online Resources:

Website: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/

Contact Role:

Value: custodian
CodeList: CI_RoleCode

Distribution Format(s):

Data File Format:

Name: PDF
Specification: FTP

Data File Format:

Name: ASCII Text (.txt)
Specification: FTP

Digital Transfer Options:

Online Transfer Options:

Online Resources:

Linkage: ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/fgdc/ggd282_rockglac_chile/
Description: Data Access URL
Function:

Value: download
CodeList: CI_OnLineFunctionCode

Linkage: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/fgdc/ggd282_rockglac_chile/index.html
Description: Documentation URL
Function:

Value: information
CodeList: CI_OnLineFunctionCode

Offline Transfer Options:

Offline Resources:

Name:

Value: onLine
CodeList: MD_MediumNameCode
Medium Name: FTP

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Metadata Views

ISO Text-Only

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in plain text

ISO XML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

DIF HTML

NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)