Entry_ID: GGD280
Entry_Title: Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Trombotto, D. and E. Buk
   Dataset_Title: Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd280.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Dario
   Last_Name: Trombotto
   Email: dtrombot@lab.cricyt.edu.ar
   Phone: 054-61-287029 
   Fax:  054-061-380370 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: IANIGLA-CRICYT-CONICET
      Address: Geocriologia
      Address: Bajada del Cerro s/n, Cassilla de Correo 330
      City: Mendoza
      Postal_Code: 5500
      Country: Argentina
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: E.
   Last_Name: Buk
   Email: geocrio@ianigl.edu.aar
   Phone: 054 061 274011 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Instituto Argentiono de Nivologia y Glaciologia
      Address: Unidad de Geocriologia
      Address: CC 330
      City: Mendoza
      Postal_Code: 5500
      Country: Argentina
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Active Layer
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Active Layer
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Periglacial Processes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Keyword: Active Layer
Keyword: Hydrology
Keyword: Meteorology
Keyword: Periglacial Processes
Keyword: Permafrost Features
Keyword: Permafrost Properties
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1980-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1993-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -32.983
   Northernmost_Latitude: -32.9
   Westernmost_Longitude: -69.45
   Easternmost_Longitude: -69.25
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: SOUTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: ARGENTINA
   Detailed_Location: CENTRAL ANDES, MORENAS COLORADAS AND EL SALTO BASIN,
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Barsch, D and Happoldt, H. (1985). Blockgletscherbildung and holozene 
   Hhenstufengliederung in den mendozinischen Anden, Argentinien. Zentralblatt 
   fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie, 1 (11/12): 1625-1632. Barsch, D and King, L. 
   (1989). Origin and geoelectrical resistivity of rockglaciers in semiarid 
   subtropical mountains, Andes of Mendoza, Argentina. Zeitschrift fuer 
   Geomorfologie, N. F., 33 (2): 151-163. Buk, E. (1983). Glaciares de escombros 
   y su significacion hidrologica. Acta Geocrioginica, no. 1: 22-38, Mendoza. 
   Buk, E. (1987). Hydrochemestry of rivers in mountain permafrost at 33 degrees 
   S, Mendoza, Argentina. V International Conference on Permafrost, Trondheim, 
   Norway, p. 294-298. Trombotto, D., Buk, E, and Hernandez, J. (1997). 
   Monitoring of Mountain Permafrost in the Central Andes, Cordon del Plata, 
   Mendoza, Argentina. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, Vol.8:123-129.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   Primary rock glaciers are fed by avalanche chutes. At the El Salto rock 
   glacier, surveys have been undertaken in order to determine the creep rate. 
   Between 1981 and 1986 temperatures at elevations between 3500 and 3600 m were 
   measured in the active layer to a depth of 1 m with a multipoint temperature 
   recorder (Grant). On the basis of these measurement Buk (1983) determined that 
   the permafrost table was at a depth of about 3 m and the base of the 
   permafrost at 68 m. Similar conclusions were reached by Barsch and King 
   (1989). As an illustration of the importance of avalanches to these forms, the 
   base camp there was destroyed by an avalanche in November 1983. 

   The surface of the basin of Morenas Coloradas is 54 square km, of which 10.4 
   square km is seasonally frozen ground. The remaining 60% of the surface is 
   typically periglacial with rock glaciers as the most important forms. In the 
   glacigenic rock glacier, the clean glacier ice ends in detritus-covered or 
   morainic tongues which result in glacigenic ice being incorporated within the 
   substrate. In this way, ice persists at lower altitudes and under very arid 
   conditions (Lliboutry, 1986; Garleff and Stingl, 1986; Schrott, 1992). 
   Interconnected rock glaciers are generated which undergo different phases of 
   activity not always in agreement with those expected as a resulted of their 
   elevations. That is, they continue to show signs of activity not only at the 
   height of the present 0 degrees C air isotherm, but at lower elevations. In 
   the last step downwards towards the valleys these rock glaciers become 
   inactive, and finally morphologically relict or fossil rock glaciers are 
   found. Meteorological, hydrological and geophysical measurements as well as 5 
   drillings to a depth of 5 m have been carried out in Morenas Coloradas. At an 
   elevation of 3560 m the temperature oscillates around 0 degrees C (with a 
   maximum variation of 0.5 degrees C) at depths between 4 and 5 m. The annual 
   precipitation (1991-93) is 630 mm and the mean annual temperature is 1.6 
   degrees C. Using a calculated lapse rate of 0.52 degrees C per 100 m, the 0 
   degrees C isotherm occurs at approximately 3860 m, which represents a 
   considerable rise in comparison with earlier years. It is assumed that this 
   value is strongly influenced by climate warming in the 1980s and 1990s. 
   Temperatures measured at different depths in Morenas Coloradas at 3560 m are 
   positively correlated with the discharge of Rio Vallecitos (correlation 
   coefficients of 0.8-0.9; significance p=0.01). There is no correlation with 
   snowfall data, however, because of the influence of the 'zonda', a very dry 
   and warm wind (up to 100 km/h) which impedes the accumulation of snow. Between 
   1978 and 1979, the zonda was active for more than 1000 hours. Discharge from 
   the basin is of good quality and averages 505 l/s with a range from 230 l/s 
   (early spring) to >1000 l/s (summer). In comparison, Schrott (1994) calculated 
   the discharge of a rock glacier in the arid region of San Juan, Argentina to 
   be only 5-8 l/s. These data are presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 
   1998.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-24
DIF_Revision_History: added creator and publisher info