Entry_ID: GGD279
Entry_Title: Rock glaciers on South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Serrano, E., J. Lopez-Martinez, J.M.G. Casado, J.J. Duran, E. Martinez de Pison, and P. Nicolos
   Dataset_Title: Rock glaciers on South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd279.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Enrique
   Last_Name: Serrano
   Email: serranoe@ccaix3.unican.es
   Phone: 34 42 201776 
   Fax:  34 42 201783 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Universidad de Cantabria
      Address: Programa Nacional de Investigacion en la Antartida
      Address: Av. de Los Castros s/n.
      City: Santander
      Postal_Code: 30012
      Country: Spain
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jeronimo
   Last_Name: Lopez-Martinez
   Email: Jeronimo.Lopez@uam.es
   Phone: 34 1 3974513 
   Fax:  43 1 397490 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
      Address: Dipartmento Quimica Agricola, Geologia y Geoquimica
      Address: Cantoblanco
      City: Madrid
      Postal_Code: 28049
      Country: Spain
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jose Manuel Gonzalez
   Last_Name: Casado
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Juan Jose
   Last_Name: Duran
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Eduardo
   Last_Name: Martinez de Pison
   Email: emartinez@uam.es
   Phone: 34 1 397 4513 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Geografia
      Address: ERHIN Program, D.G.O.H., Environment National Ministry
      Address: Cantoblanco
      City: Madrid
      Postal_Code: 28049
      Country: Spain
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Pedro
   Last_Name: Nicolos
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Rock Glaciers
End_Group
Keyword: Mapping
Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1994-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1997-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -63.667
   Northernmost_Latitude: -61.983
   Westernmost_Longitude: -62.75
   Easternmost_Longitude: -57.667
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: SOUTHERN OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS
   Detailed_Location: SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS, ANTARCTIC PENINSULA
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   BARSCH, D.1996. Rochglaciers. Indicators for the present and former geoecology 
   in high mountain environments. Springer Verlag, Berlin. 331 p.

   BARSCH, D., BLUEMEL, W.D., FLUEGEL, W.A., MAUSBACHER, R., STAEBLEIN, G., ZICK, 
   W.1985. Untersuchungen zum Periglazial auf der Koenig George-Insel, 
   Suedshetlandinseln, Antarktika. Ber Polarforsch, 24:75.

   BIRKENMAJER, K.1981. Lichenometric dating of raised marine beaches at 
   Admiralty Bay, King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica). 
   Bulletin de L'Academie Polonaise des Sciences, vol. XXIX, 2:119-127.

   BOCKHEIM, J.G.1995. Permafrost distribution in the Southern Circumpolar region 
   and its relation to the environment: a review and recommendations for further 
   research. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 6:27-45.

   CHENG, Z., ZHIJIU, C.; JIANXIN, Z.1996. Relatonship between the distribution 
   of periglacial landforms and glaciation history, Fildes Peninsula, King George 
   islands Antarctica. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 7: 95-100. 

   LOPEZ-MARTINEZ, J., MARTINEZ DE PISON, E., ARCHE, A. 1992a. Geomorphology of 
   Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. In Yoshida, Y. et 
   al. Recent Progress in Antarctic Earth Science, Terrapub, Tokio:751-756.

    LOPEZ-MARTINEZ, J., VILAPLANA, J.M., MARTINEZ DE PISON, E., CALVET, J. ARCHE, 
   A., SERRAT, D., PALLAS, R. 1992b.- Geomorphology of selected areas in 
   Livingston Island, South Shetland IslandS. In Lopez-Martinez, J. Geologia de 
   la Antartida Occidental, III Congreso Geologico de Espana, T-III Salamanca 
   :271-281.

    MARTINEZ DE PISON, E., LOPEZ-MARTINEZ, J., ARCHE, A. 1991. Formas y depositos 
   de la zona de Johnsons Dock. Mapa geomorfologico. Isla Livingston. Shetland 
   del Sur, Antartida. Eria, Revista de Geografia, 24-25:39-45.

   
SERRANO, E.; LOPEZ-MARTINEZ, J.(In prep.).- Rock glaciers in the South 
   Shetland Islands.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   In the South Shetland Islands the investigators found eight active rock 
   glaciers, no relict or fossil examples, and seven protalus ramparts. The rock 
   glaciers are located on peninsulas and capes of the two main islands of the 
   archipelago: King George and Livingston. The South Shetland Islands have a 
   cold oceanic climate, characteristic of the maritime Antarctica, with frequent 
   summer rains and moderate thermal amplitude, and a cold and humid 
   morphoclimatic system, of crionival character. These climatic parameters 
   facilitate the operation of periglacial processes, and the presence of a 
   usually saturated active layer in summer. In the South Shetland Islands the 
   presence of rock glaciers have been identified on Livingston Island (Martinez 
   de Pison et al., 1991; Lopez-Martinez et al., 1992a, 1992b), on Admiralty Bay, 
   in King George Island (Birkenmajer, 1981; Barsch et al., 1985) and in Fildes 
   Peninsula (Barsch et al. 1985; Barsch, 1996; Cheng et al., 1996). Four further 
   active rock glaciers have been identified during the present study in King 
   George and Livingston Island (Serrano and Lopez-Martinez, in prep.). The rock 
   glaciers are located in marginal zones, between 300 m asl and sea level, which 
   has been recently deglaciated, and principally under 70 m asl, near 100 m 
   under the Median Equilibrium Line Altitude (MELA). There are indications of a 
   recent diminution of activity, with blurred fronts, mass movements in fronts 
   and sides, lichen colonization and glaciokarstic processes. All of these 
   indicate an inherited dynamic of past conditions in lower altitudes.

   References to rock glaciers are scarce in Antarctica, limited to a few 
   examples in the Transantarctic Mountains, Victoria Land, South Georgia, James 
   Ross Island, and South Shetland Islands. The spatial pattern of rock glaciers 
   indicates that they are more represented in the periphery of Antarctica than 
   in the interior of the continent, and are particularly numerous in the 
   Antarctic Peninsula region. These data are presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 
   CD-ROM, June 1998.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-08-24
DIF_Revision_History: added creator and publisher info