Entry_ID: GGD223
Entry_Title: Borehole locations and permafrost depths, Alaska, USA
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Clow, G.D
   Dataset_Title: Borehole locations and permafrost depths, Alaska, USA
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd223.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Gary D.
   Last_Name: Clow
   Email: clow@usgs.gov
   Phone: 1 303 236-5509 
   Fax: 1 303  236-5349 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: US Geological Survey
      Address: Denver Federal Center, Box 25046, MS980
      City: Denver
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80225
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Max C.
   Last_Name: Brewer
   Phone: 1 907 786-7429 
   Fax: 1 907  786-7429 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: US Geological Survey
      Address: 4200 University Drive
      City: Anchorage
      Province_or_State: AK
      Postal_Code: 99508
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Arthur H.
   Last_Name: Lachenbruch
   Email: alachenbruch@usgs.gov
   Phone: 1 650 329-4879 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: US Geological Survey
      Address: 345 Middlefield Road, MS 977
      City: Menlo Park
      Province_or_State: CA
      Postal_Code: 94025
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Soil Temperature
End_Group
Keyword: Boreholes
Keyword: Permafrost Properties
Keyword: Permafrost Temperature
Keyword: Thermal Properties
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1950-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1989-12-31
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 62.19
   Northernmost_Latitude: 71.189
   Westernmost_Longitude: -165.767
   Easternmost_Longitude: -141.15
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
   Detailed_Location: ARCTIC ALASKA, USA
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Clow, G.D., R.W. Saltus, and E.D. Waddington (1996): A new high-precision 
   borehole-temperature logging system used at GISP2, Greenland, and Taylor Dome, 
   Antarctica, J. Glaciology, vol. 42, 576-584.

   Lachenbruch, A.H. and M.C. Brewer (1959): Dissipation of the temperature 
   effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
   1083-C, 109 pp.

   Sass, J.H., A.H. Lachenbruch, R.J. Munroe, G.W. Greene, and T.H. Moses, Jr. 
   (1971): Heat flow in the Western United States, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 76, 
   6376-6413.

   Brewer, M.C. (1958): Some results of geothermal investigations of permafrost, 
   Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 39, 19-26.

   Deming, D., J.H. Sass, A.H. Lachenbruch, and R.F. De Rito (1992): Heat flow 
   and subsurface temperature as evidence for basin-scale groundwater flow, North 
   Slope of Alaska, Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 104, 528-542.

   Gold, L.W. and A.H. Lachenbruch (1973): Thermal conditions in permafrost - a 
   review of North American literature, in Permafrost: The North American 
   Contribution to the Second International Conference, National Academy of 
   Sciences, 3-23.

   Lachenbruch, A. H. (1957): Thermal effects of the ocean on permafrost, Geol. 
   Soc. America Bull., vol. 68, 1515-1530.

   Lachenbruch, A. H. (1968): Permafrost, in Fairbridge, R. W., ed., The 
   Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, New York, Reinhold Book Corp., Earth Sciences 
   Series, vol. 3, 833-839.

   Lachenbruch, A. H. (1994): Permafrost, the active layer, and changing climate, 
   U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-694, 43 pp.

   Lachenbruch, A.H. and M.C. Brewer (1959): Dissipation of the temperature 
   effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
   1083-C, 109 pp.  Lachenbruch, A.H., M.C. Brewer, G.W. Greene, and B.V. 
   Marshall (1962): Temperatures in permafrost, in Temperature - Its Measurement 
   and Control in Science and Industry, Reinhold Pub. Co., vol. 3, 791-803.

   Lachenbruch, A.H., Cladouhos, T.T., and Saltus, R.W., 1988, Permafrost 
   Temperature and the Changing Climate: in 'Permafrost', vol. 3, Fifth 
   International Conference on Permafrost, Senneset, Kaare (ed.), Tapir 
   Publishers, Trondheim, Norway, 9-17.

   Lachenbruch, A.H., S.P. Galanis, Jr., and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1987): A thermal 
   cross section for the permafrost and hydrate stability zones in the Kuparuk 
   and Prudhoe Bay oil fields, in Gallaway, J.P. and T.D. Hamilton, eds., 
   Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1987, U.S. 
   Geological Survey Circular 1016, 48-51.

   Lachenbruch, A.H., G.W. Greene, and B.V. Marshall (1966): Permafrost and the 
   geothermal regimes, in Wilimovsky, N.J. and J.N. Wolfe, eds., Environment of 
   the Cape Thompson Region, Alaska, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, USAEC 
   Division of Technical Information, Report PNE-48b, 149-163.

   
Lachenbruch, A.H., and B.V. Marshall (1969): Heat flow in the Arctic, ARCTIC, 
   vol. 22, 300-311.

    Lachenbruch, A.H. and B.V. Marshall (1986): Changing climate: geothermal 
   evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic,  Science, vol. 234,689-696.

    Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, L.A. Lawver, M.C. Brewer, G.V. Marshall, R.J. 
   Munroe, J.P. Kennelly, Jr., S.P. Galanis, Jr., and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): 
   Temperature and depth of permafrost on the arctic slope of Alaska, in Gryc, 
   G., ed., Geology and Exploration of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 
   1974-1982, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1399, 645-656.

    Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, L.A. Lawver, and M.C. Brewer (1987): 
   Temperature and depth of permafrost on the Alaskan arctic slope, in Tailleur, 
   I. and P. Weimer, eds., Alaskan North Slope Geology, Bakersfield, Calif., 
   Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Pacific Section, vol. 
   2, 545-558.

    Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, B.V. Marshall, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): 
   Thermal regime of permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey 
   Open-File Report 82-535.

   Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, B.V. Marshall, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): 
   Permafrost, heat flow and the geothermal regime at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, J. 
   Geophys. Res., vol. 87, 9301-9316.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The methods utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure subsurface 
   temperatures have evolved considerably over the years. Although some of the 
   early measurements were obtained using thermistor strings frozen into 
   permafrost, the vast majority of the measurements were made in fluid-filled 
   holes using a custom temperature sensor. A typical sensor used in Alaska prior 
   to 1989 consisted of a series-parallel network of 20 thermistors; see Sass et 
   al. [1971] for a more detailed description. During a logging experiment, the 
   resistance of the thermistor network was determined using a Wheatstone bridge 
   prior to 1967. After that time, a 4-wire resistance measurement was made using 
   a commercial 5.5-digit multimeter (DMM). Before 1984, boreholes were logged in 
   the 'incremental' or 'stop-and-go' modes; the vertical spacing of the 
   measurements was typically 3-15 m. Beginning in 1984, the depth/resistance 
   measurements were automatically stored on magnetic tape, allowing boreholes to 
   be logged in the 'continuous' mode; the typical data spacing for the 
   continuous temperature logs was 0.3 m (1 ft). Many of the Alaskan boreholes 
   were re-logged several times to quantify the thermal disturbance caused by 
   drilling the holes (see Lachenbruch and Brewer [1959]). A review of current 
   temperature measuring techniques used by the USGS in the polar regions is 
   given by Clow et al. [1996]. Data from 1950-1989 are included on the CAPS 
   CD-ROM Version 1.0, June 1998.

End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-03-07
Group: DIF_Revision_History

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End_Group