Borehole locations and permafrost depths, Alaska, USA

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Entry ID

GGD223

Summary

The methods utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure subsurface temperatures have evolved considerably over the years. Although some of the early measurements were obtained using thermistor strings frozen into permafrost, the vast majority of the measurements were made in fluid-filled holes using a custom temperature sensor. A typical sensor used in Alaska prior to 1989 consisted of a series-parallel network of 20 thermistors; see Sass et al. [1971] for a more detailed description. During a logging experiment, the resistance of the thermistor network was determined using a Wheatstone bridge prior to 1967. After that time, a 4-wire resistance measurement was made using a commercial 5.5-digit multimeter (DMM). Before 1984, boreholes were logged in the 'incremental' or 'stop-and-go' modes; the vertical spacing of the measurements was typically 3-15 m. Beginning in 1984, the depth/resistance measurements were automatically stored on magnetic tape, allowing boreholes to be logged in the 'continuous' mode; the typical data spacing for the continuous temperature logs was 0.3 m (1 ft). Many of the Alaskan boreholes were re-logged several times to quantify the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the holes (see Lachenbruch and Brewer [1959]). A review of current temperature measuring techniques used by the USGS in the polar regions is given by Clow et al. [1996]. Data from 1950-1989 are included on the CAPS CD-ROM Version 1.0, June 1998.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 71.189°     S: 62.19°     E: -141.15°     W: -165.767°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Clow, G.D
Dataset Title: Borehole locations and permafrost depths, Alaska, USA
Dataset Release Date: 1998-01-01
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd223.html

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1950-01-01
Stop Date: 1989-12-31

Location Keywords

  • CONTINENT NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ARCTIC ALASKA, USA

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Frozen Ground Permafrost
  • Cryosphere Frozen Ground Soil Temperature
  • Land Surface Frozen Ground Permafrost
  • Land Surface Frozen Ground Soil Temperature

Ancillary Keywords

  • Boreholes
  • Permafrost Properties
  • Permafrost Temperature
  • Thermal Properties

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Frozen Ground Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/

Data Center Personnel

Name: FGDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Personnel

Gary D. Clow
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 303 236-5509
Fax: 1 303 236-5349
Email: clow@usgs.gov
Contact Address:

  • US Geological Survey
  • Denver Federal Center, Box 25046, MS980

City: Denver
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80225
Country: USA

Max C. Brewer
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 907 786-7429
Fax: 1 907 786-7429
Contact Address:

  • US Geological Survey
  • 4200 University Drive

City: Anchorage
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99508
Country: USA

Arthur H. Lachenbruch
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 650 329-4879
Email: alachenbruch@usgs.gov
Contact Address:

  • US Geological Survey
  • 345 Middlefield Road, MS 977

City: Menlo Park
Province or State: CA
Postal Code: 94025
Country: USA

Reference

Clow, G.D., R.W. Saltus, and E.D. Waddington (1996): A new high-precision borehole-temperature logging system used at GISP2, Greenland, and Taylor Dome, Antarctica, J. Glaciology, vol. 42, 576-584.

Lachenbruch, A.H. and M.C. Brewer (1959): Dissipation of the temperature effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1083-C, 109 pp.

Sass, J.H., A.H. Lachenbruch, R.J. Munroe, G.W. Greene, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1971): Heat flow in the Western United States, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 76, 6376-6413.

Brewer, M.C. (1958): Some results of geothermal investigations of permafrost, Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 39, 19-26.

Deming, D., J.H. Sass, A.H. Lachenbruch, and R.F. De Rito (1992): Heat flow and subsurface temperature as evidence for basin-scale groundwater flow, North Slope of Alaska, Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 104, 528-542.

Gold, L.W. and A.H. Lachenbruch (1973): Thermal conditions in permafrost - a review of North American literature, in Permafrost: The North American Contribution to the Second International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, 3-23.

Lachenbruch, A. H. (1957): Thermal effects of the ocean on permafrost, Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 68, 1515-1530.

Lachenbruch, A. H. (1968): Permafrost, in Fairbridge, R. W., ed., The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, New York, Reinhold Book Corp., Earth Sciences Series, vol. 3, 833-839.

Lachenbruch, A. H. (1994): Permafrost, the active layer, and changing climate, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-694, 43 pp.

Lachenbruch, A.H. and M.C. Brewer (1959): Dissipation of the temperature effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1083-C, 109 pp. Lachenbruch, A.H., M.C. Brewer, G.W. Greene, and B.V. Marshall (1962): Temperatures in permafrost, in Temperature - Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Reinhold Pub. Co., vol. 3, 791-803.

Lachenbruch, A.H., Cladouhos, T.T., and Saltus, R.W., 1988, Permafrost Temperature and the Changing Climate: in 'Permafrost', vol. 3, Fifth International Conference on Permafrost, Senneset, Kaare (ed.), Tapir Publishers, Trondheim, Norway, 9-17.

Lachenbruch, A.H., S.P. Galanis, Jr., and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1987): A thermal cross section for the permafrost and hydrate stability zones in the Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay oil fields, in Gallaway, J.P. and T.D. Hamilton, eds., Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1987, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1016, 48-51.

Lachenbruch, A.H., G.W. Greene, and B.V. Marshall (1966): Permafrost and the geothermal regimes, in Wilimovsky, N.J. and J.N. Wolfe, eds., Environment of the Cape Thompson Region, Alaska, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, USAEC Division of Technical Information, Report PNE-48b, 149-163.


Lachenbruch, A.H., and B.V. Marshall (1969): Heat flow in the Arctic, ARCTIC, vol. 22, 300-311.

Lachenbruch, A.H. and B.V. Marshall (1986): Changing climate: geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic, Science, vol. 234,689-696.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, L.A. Lawver, M.C. Brewer, G.V. Marshall, R.J. Munroe, J.P. Kennelly, Jr., S.P. Galanis, Jr., and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): Temperature and depth of permafrost on the arctic slope of Alaska, in Gryc, G., ed., Geology and Exploration of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 1974-1982, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1399, 645-656.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, L.A. Lawver, and M.C. Brewer (1987): Temperature and depth of permafrost on the Alaskan arctic slope, in Tailleur, I. and P. Weimer, eds., Alaskan North Slope Geology, Bakersfield, Calif., Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Pacific Section, vol. 2, 545-558.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, B.V. Marshall, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): Thermal regime of permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-535.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, B.V. Marshall, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): Permafrost, heat flow and the geothermal regime at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 87, 9301-9316.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 1998-01-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-03-07

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