Entry_ID: G10004
Entry_Title: Greenland Snow Pit and Core Stratigraphy (Analog and Digital Formats)
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Benson, C. S. 
   Dataset_Title: Greenland Snow Pit and Core Stratigraphy (Analog and Digital Formats)
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2013-01-30
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g10004.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5RN35SK
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: C.
   Middle_Name: S.
   Last_Name: Benson
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Thickness/Ice Sheet Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Depth/Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Density
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Facies
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Stratigraphy
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Paleoclimate
   Term: Ice Core Records
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Glacier Thickness/Ice Sheet Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Sheets
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Depth/Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Density
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Depth
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Facies
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Stratigraphy
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Haefeli Rammsonde Penetrometer
Keyword: Ice Sheet Facies
Keyword: Snow Accumulation
Keyword: SNOW CORES
Keyword: Snow Densification
Keyword: Snow Stratigraphy
Keyword: Traverses
Keyword: Weston Bimetallic Thermometer
Sensor_Name: CAMERAS
Sensor_Name: PENETROMETERS
Sensor_Name: THERMOMETERS
Source_Name: GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1911-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1981-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 69
   Northernmost_Latitude: 78
   Westernmost_Longitude: -69
   Easternmost_Longitude: -38
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: GREENLAND
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC ARC > NSIDC Roger G. Barry Archives and Resource Center 
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/rocs/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC ARC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center CIRES, 449 UCB University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 2.8 GB
   Distribution_Format: PDF
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: Paper
   Distribution_Format: Paper
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: Microfiche
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 70 KB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Benson, C.S. 1962. Stratigraphic Studies in the Snow and Firn of the Greenland 
   Ice Sheet, CRREL Research Report 70. 

   DeQuervain, A. and P. L. Mercanton. 1925. Resultats Scientifiques de 
   l'Expedition Suisse au Groenland 1912- 1913, Meddelelser Om Gronland, Bd. 59, 
   Nr. 5, p. 55-271. 

   Hendrickson, K.N. 1955. "Mapping Program", in, Project Mint Julep Part I: 
   Introduction, Narrative, and General Reports, Research Studies Institute, Air 
   University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, Arctic Desert Tropic Information 
   Center Publication A-104, p. 43-46. 

   LaChapelle, E. 1955. "Ablation Studies in the Mint Julep Area, Southwest 
   Greenland", in, Project Mint Julep Part II, Special Scientific Reports, 
   Research Studies Institute, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, 
   Arctic Desert Tropic Information Center Publication A-104b, p.51-72. 

   Schuster, R.L., 1954. Project Mint Julep Part III Snow Studies, CRREL Research 
   Report 19. 

   Koch, J.P. and A. Wegener. 1930. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Danischen 
   Expedition nach Dronning Louise Land und quer uber das Inlandeis von 
   Nordgronland (1912- 13 unter Leitung von Hauptmann J.P. Koch), Meddelelser Om 
   Gronland, Bd. 75. 

   Langway, C.C. Jr. 1961. Accumulation and Temperature on the Inland Ice of 
   North Greenland, Journal of Glaciology Vol. 3, No. 30, p. 1017-1044. 

   Malzer, H. 1964 Das Nivellment uber das Gronlandische Inlandeis der 
   Internationalen Glaziologischen Gronland Expedition, EGIG 1957-1960 Vol. 3, 
   No. 1, Kobenhavn. 

   Hoffmann, W. 1964. Die Geodatische Lagemessung uber das Gronlandische 
   Inlandeis der Internationalen Glaziologischen Gronland Expedition, EGIG 
   1957-1960 Vol. 2, No. 4, Kobenhavn. 

   Mock, S. J. 1965. Glaciological Studies in the Vicinity of Camp Century 
   Greenland, CRREL Research Report 157. 

   Rinker, J. N. and S. J. Mock. 1967. Radar Ice Thickness Profiles; Northwest 
   Greenland, CRREL Special Report 103. 

   Mock, S. J. and Alford. 1964. Installation of Ice Movement Poles in Greenland, 
   CRREL Special Report 67. 

   Mock, S. J. and R. H. Ragle. 1963. Elevations on the Ice Sheet of Southern 
   Greenland, CRREL Technical Report 124. 

   Ragle, R. H. and T. C. Davis. 1962. South Greenland Traverses, Journal of 
   Glaciology, Vol. 4, p. 129-131. 

   Patterson, W. S. B. 1955. Altitudes on the Inland Ice in North Greenland, 
   Meddelelser Om Gronland, Bd. 137, Nr. 1.

   Bull, C. 1956. "Part IV. Seismic Investigations on the Northern Part of the 
   Greenland Ice Sheet" , in, British North Greenland Expedition 1952-1954: 
   Scientific Results, Geographical Journal, Vol. 122, p. 219-225. 

   Lister, H. 1961. "Accumulation and Firnification in north Greenland", in 
   Physical Geography of Greenland, XIX International Geographical Congress, 
   Norden, 1960, B. Fristrup editor, Folia Geographica Danica, Tm. 9. 

   U.S. Army Transportation Board. 1960. Report of Environmental Operation: Lead 
   Dog 1960, Final Report Project Lead Dog, TCB-60-023-EO. 

   Merlivat, L., et al. 1973. Tritium and Deuterium Content of the Snow in 
   Greenland, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 19, p. 235-240. 

   Clausen, H. B., et al. 1980. Snow Accumulation Data for Several Points in 
   Southern Greenland, personal communication to Dr. C.S. Benson. 

   Koide, M., et al. 1977. Transuranic Depositional History in South Greenland 
   Firn Layers, Nature, Vol. 269, p. 137 -139. 

   Hammer, C. U., et al. 1978. Dating of Greenland Ice Cores by Flow Models, 
   Isotopes, Volcanic Debris, and Continental Dust, Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 
   20, No. 82 p. 3-26. 

   Ambach, W. and W. Dansgaard. 1970. Fallout and Climate Studies on Firn Cores 
   from Carrefour, Greenland, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 8, p. 
   311-316. 

   MacKinnon, P. K. 1980. Ice Cores. Glaciological Data Report GD-8, World Data 
   Center A for Glaciology, Boulder Colorado. 

   Federer, B. 1969. Nivologische Arbeiten der Internationalen Glaziologischen 
   Gronland Expedition EGIG 1968, Interner Bericht NR 491, Eidgenossishes 
   Institut fur Schnee und Lowinenforschung, Weissfluhjoch, Davos. 

   Sorge, E. 1933. The Scientific Results of the Wegener Expedition to Greenland, 
   Geographic Journal, Vol. 81, p. 333-344.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set is comprised of scientific field study notebooks from geologist 
   Carl S. Benson describing his traverses of Greenland from 1952 to 1955. The 
   notebooks contain data on Greenland snow accumulation, snow temperature, 
   stratigrapy, ice sheet facies, and snow densification. Dr. Benson's notebooks 
   also include a supplementary 1956 snow accumulation study done by the U.S. Air 
   Force. The notebooks have been scanned and put into PDF format. In addition, a 
   compendium of Greenland snow accumulation data, compiled by Dr. Benson in 
   1986, is included that spans 1911 to 1981. It is in ASCII text format.

   During a four-year period from 1952 through 1955, Carl Benson, along with many 
   other individuals and several other organizations, dug and studied 146 snow 
   pits and made 288 supplementary snow hardness profiles with a ramsonde 
   instrument along a 1100 mile traverse in Northwest Greenland (Benson 1962). 
   For each exposed pit, temperature, density, ram hardness, and grain size were 
   measured. The data in the notebooks include a listing of all pit locations, a 
   summary matrix of data collected at each station; accumulation data adjusted 
   for Fall 1954 and Fall 1955 reference horizons; average accumulation for all 
   stations; integrated ram hardness (snow density); descriptive stratigraphy, 
   pit profile temperature and density; and pit and core temperature, density, 
   ram hardness, and stratigraphy for each location. Benson's notebooks for 1952 
   through 1954 were scanned at NSIDC and are available via FTP. As of January 
   2013, the 1955 notebooks are still in the process of being digitized. The 
   physical notebooks are available for use on-site at NSIDC by appointment.

End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NOAA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2013-01-30
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-01-30
DIF_Revision_History: New data set.