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Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

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Entry ID

G02203

Summary

From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on compiled observations of ice conditions reported by a variable network of national organizations, shore-based observers, scientific expeditions, and ships as detailed in each report; in cases where no observations were available, the lead mapmakers extrapolated further ice cover using their knowledge of ice movement. Except for where direct observations are indicated, caution is advised in using the charts’ ice edge because there is no way to quantify the assumptions used in extrapolating ice edge or the error involved in this method. See the note on reliability for further discussion of potential error. The charts were scanned at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) and are being made available here as a service and in cooperation with DMI and other contributors. In all, there are 266 image files containing 291 images.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 90°     S: 55°     E: 180°     W: -180°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Danish Meteorological Institute and National Snow and Ice Data Center. Compiled by V. Underhill and F. Fetterer.
Dataset Title: Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956
Dataset Release Date: 2012-11-15
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02203.html
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N56D5QXC

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1893-04-01
Stop Date: 1956-08-31

Location Keywords

  • OCEAN ARCTIC OCEAN

Science Keywords

  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration

Ancillary Keywords

  • Sea Ice
  • Sea Ice Conditions
  • Sea Ice Extent

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere

Quality

Especially early in the century, these charts are based on relatively sparse data and rely to a large degree on the inference and extrapolation of the lead mapmakers: V. Garde, C. Speerschneider, and H. Thomsen and M.V.L.Lorck (Thomsen, 1947). Direct observations are always clearly marked, but white space denotes the assumed ice edge. Directly observed open water is not shown differently than assumed open water. Details on areas of open water can be found in the notes that accompany the charts. In most cases, this assumed ice edge follows a 30-year climatological average over a period of years that shifts over the record. We do not have a refernce or any more information on the 30-year climatology. However, the assumed ice edge moves independent of the climatological average line. This suggests that the mapmakers incorporated more factors than just an average estimate. As suggested by Kelly (1979), the mapmakers probably extrapolated the annual ice edge in three ways: they probably used their knowledge of ice movement, growth, and melt to project ice conditions from given data points further in both time and space. They also may have used auxiliary data that are not included in the DMI publications themselves; these sources may have included annual climatic or atmospheric circulation data present at the time. The DMI mapmakers were experienced climatologists, so while their inferences are subjective, they are also probably the most reliable of the time.

Data Set Progress

complete

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 4.5 MB
Distribution Format: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)

Personnel

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Unknown
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • Danish Meteorological Institute
  • Lyngbyvej 100 DK-2100

City: Copenhagen E
Country: Denmark

Related URL

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Morphometric Characteristics of Ice and Snow in the Arctic Basin: Aircraft Landing Observations from the Former Soviet Union, 1928-1989

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Sea Ice Charts of the Russian Arctic in Gridded Format, 1933-2006

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
The Dehn Collection of Arctic Sea Ice Charts, 1953-1986

Reference

Chapman, W.L., and J.E. Walsh. 1991, updated 1996. Arctic and Southern Ocean sea ice concentrations. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center http://nsidc.org/data/g00799.html.

Dehn, W. S. 1979. Inadequacies in Archive Sea Ice Data. Glaciological Data Report : Workshop on Snow Cover and Sea Ice Data. GD-5 p 101-106. World Data Center A for Glaciology (Snow and Ice). Boulder, CO.

Kelly, P. M. 1979. An Arctic Sea Ice Data Set: 1901-1956. Glaciological Data Report : Workshop on Snow Cover and Sea Ice Data. GD-5 p 101-106. World Data Center A for Glaciology (Snow and Ice). Boulder, CO.

Walsh, J.E. (1978) A data set on Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent. National Snow and Ice Data Center, "Glaciological Data, Report GD-2", part 1, pp. 49 - 51.

Sear, C. B. 1988. An Index of Sea Ice Variations in the Nordic Seas. Int. J. Climatology 8: 339-55.

Thompson, H. 1947. The Annual Reports on the Arctic Sea Ice issued by the Danish Meteorological Institute. J. of Glaciology 1(3): 140-141.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2012-11-15
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-03-12

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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