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Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004

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Entry ID

G02173

Summary

In the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, the most significant sea ice anomalies have occurred in the summer ice extent (Eicken et al. 2006). In addition, there has been a considerable decline in the multiyear ice pack in this region (Eicken et al. 2006). To help understand these anomalies, this data set contains information on recurring spring leads and landfast ice extent in this area. This data set maps and documents the spatial and temporal distribution of recurring leads and landfast ice off the coast of northern Alaska in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (Eicken et al. 2006). The leads data span from 1993 through 2004 and are based on visible and infrared Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data onboard the NOAA 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 satellites. The landfast ice extent data extend from 1996 through 2004 and are based on RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The data are available in a number of formats including ArcGIS geodatabases (.mdb), shapefiles (.shp), ArcGIS grids (.adf), ArcGIS grids in ArcInfo interchange format (.e00), and GeoTIFFs (.tif). Statistics are also provided in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (.xls) and metadata in several formats including XML (.xml), SGML (.sgml), HTML (.html), and ASCII text (.txt). Quick-view browse images in JPEG (.jpg) format are provided for the shapefiles, grids, and GeoTIFFs. Data are available via FTP.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 73.95769°     S: 68.48204°     E: -129.87714°     W: -164.08084°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Eicken, H., L. Shapiro, A. G. Gaylord, A. Mahoney, and P. W. Cotter.
Dataset Title: Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004
Dataset Release Date: 2009-06-17
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02173.html
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5SB43P0

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1993-12-09
Stop Date: 2004-07-29

Data Resolution

Latitude Resolution: 1.1 km
Longitude Resolution: 1.1 km

Latitude Resolution: 100 m
Longitude Resolution: 100 m

Location Keywords

  • OCEAN ARCTIC OCEAN BEAUFORT SEA
  • OCEAN ARCTIC OCEAN CHUKCHI SEA

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Edges
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Edges
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Leads
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Leads
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Edges
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Edges
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Oceans Sea Ice Leads
  • Oceans Sea Ice Leads

Ancillary Keywords

  • AVHRR
  • Beaufort Sea
  • Chukchi Sea
  • Infrared
  • landfast ice
  • Leads
  • NOAA
  • RADARSAT-1
  • Radarsat imagery
  • SAR imagery
  • Sea Ice Extent
  • Visible Imagery

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere

Platform

  • NOAA-12 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-12
  • NOAA-14 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14
  • NOAA-15 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-15
  • NOAA-16 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16
  • NOAA-17 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17
  • RADARSAT-1

Instrument

  • AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
  • SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar

Quality

Note: NSIDC did not perform a quality assessment of the data.

Landfast Ice Extent:

The manual process for identifying landfast ice extent has subjectivity. However, this subjectivity was reduced by using a gradient difference. Refer to the landfast ice extent Data Processing section of this document for more information on the gradient difference.

The following is a list of the quality checks performed on the landfast ice (Mahoney et al. 2005): * Data were checked for adequate coverage over the study area (subregions 2-11). * Images with a large geolocation error were identified and either corrected or disregarded.

* The geolocation accuracy could create collocation errors of up to 10 pixels or 1 km between parts of two mosaics.

Leads:

The following checks were performed on the AVHRR data:

* Manually examined all scenes and excluded images or image sections with any trace of cloud cover or ambiguous lead/cloud features to keep the potential source of error due to clouds and fog to a minimum.

* Classified lead/ice images were compared to ship-based observations of lead fractions in May and June of 2004 and found to be in reasonable agreement with a deviation of two and one percentage-point, respectively.

Data Set Progress

complete

Originating Center

NOAA

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution Format: ESRI Grid

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution Format: ESRI Interchange

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution Format: Microsoft Excel

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 15 - 22 KB
Distribution Format: XML

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 7 - 86 MB
Distribution Format: Microsoft Access

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution Format: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution Format: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution Format: Geographic Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF) (.geotiff)

Personnel

Hajo Eicken
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Geophysical Institute
  • P.O. Box 757320

City: Fairbanks
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA

Lewis Shapiro
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Geophysical Institute

City: Fairbanks
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA

Allison Graves Gaylord
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 907 852-4881
Fax: 1 907 852-4882
Email: NunaTech@usa.net
Contact Address:

  • Nuna Technologies
  • P.O. Box 1483

City: Homer
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 3

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

P W Cotter
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Related URL

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
NOAA at NSIDC Web Site

Reference

Eicken, H., L. Shapiro, A. G. Gaylord, A. Mahoney, and P. Cotter. 2006. Mapping and Characterization of Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Final Report, Minerals Management Service OCS Study MMS 2005-068.

Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, A. Graves, A. Mahoney, I. Rigor, and H. Melling. 2005. Sediment Transport by Sea Ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing Importance Due to Changing Ice Conditions? Deep-Sea Research II 52: 3281-3302.

Fett, R. W., R. E. Englebretson, and S. D. Burk. 1997. Technologies for Analyzing Lead Condition in Visible, Infrared and Microwave Satellite Imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 13657-13671.

Key, J. R., R. Stone, J. A. Maslanik, and E. Ellefsen. 1993. The Detectability of Sea-Ice Leads in Satellite Data as a Function of Atmospheric Conditions and Measurement Scale, Annals of Glaciology 17: 227-232.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham. 1994. Use of Time Series SAR Data to Resolve Ice Type Ambiguities in Newly Opened Leads. IGARSS'94: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Surface and Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Technologies, Data Analysis, and Interpretation: 1024-1026.

Lindsay, R. W. and D. A. Rothrock. 1995. Arctic Sea Ice Leads from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Images. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 4533-4544.

Mahoney, A. 2006. 'Alaska Landfast Sea Ice Dynamics.' Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, August 2006.

Mahoney, A., H. Eicken, L. Shapiro, and A. Graves. 2005. Defining and Locating the Seaward Landfast Ice Edge in Northern Alaska. In: 18th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, J.P. Dempsey (Editor). POAC '05 Proceedings Volume 3, Potsdam, NY, June 26-30, 2005.

Mahoney, A., H. Eicken, A. G. Gaylord, and L. Shapiro. 2007. Alaska Landfast Sea Ice: Links with Bathymetry and Atmospheric Circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C02001.

Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearheard, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos. 2008. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007. EOS, 89(2), 8 January.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2009-06-17
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-03-12

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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