Entry_ID: G02172
Entry_Title: National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: National Ice Center.  Compiled by F. Fetterer and C. Fowler. 
   Dataset_Title: National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2006-01-01updated 2009
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02172.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5X34VDB
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Suitland, Maryland Usa
   Last_Name: National Ice Center
   Group: Contact_Address
      City: Suitland
      Province_or_State: MD
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Florence
   Last_Name: Fetterer
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Charles
   Last_Name: Fowler
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado at Boulder
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Environment
ISO_Topic_Category: Oceans
Keyword: Arctic Sea Ice
Keyword: Sea Ice
Keyword: Sea Ice Concentration
Keyword: Sea Ice Stage Of Development
Keyword: Sea Ice Variability
Sensor_Name: AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Sensor_Name: OLS > Operational Linescan System
Sensor_Name: SAR > Synthetic Aperture Radar
Sensor_Name: SCATTEROMETERS
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Sensor_Name: VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
Source_Name: AIRCRAFT
Source_Name: DMSP > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Source_Name: MODELS
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Source_Name: NOAA POES > NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites
Source_Name: SATELLITES
Source_Name: SHIPS
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1972-01-01
   Stop_Date: 2007-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 45
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: NOAA
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 1.32 GB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Agnew, T., and S. Howell. 2002. Comparison of digitized Canadian ice charts 
   and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations. IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Ontario, 
   Canada, Conference Proceedings. 
   http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7969/22036/01024996.pdf. Accessed 25 September 
   2006.

   Agnew, T., and S. Howell. 2003. The use of operational ice charts for 
   evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data, Atmosphere-Ocean 41 (4), 
   317-331.

   Arctic Climatology Project. 2000. Environmental Working Group joint 
   U.S.-Russian sea ice atlas. Edited by F. Tanis and V. Smolyanitsky. Ann Arbor, 
   MI: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in association with the 
   National Snow and Ice Data Center. CD-ROM. 

    Assel, R.A. 2003. An Electronic Atlas of Great Lakes Ice Cover. NOAA Great 
   Lakes Ice Atlas, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, 
   Michigan 48105.

   Bertoia, C., J. Falkingham and F. Fetterer. 1998. Polar SAR data for 
   operational sea ice mapping. In Analysis of SAR Data of the Polar Oceans. 
   Edited by C. Tsatsoulis and R. Kwok, 201-234. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

   Bertoia, C., M. Manore, and H. S. Andersen. 2001. Mapping ice covered waters 
   from space. Backscatter 12 (3) , 14-22.

   Brodzik, M. J. and K. W. Knowles. 2002. 'EASE-Grid: a versatile set of 
   equal-area projections and grids.' In M. Goodchild, ed. Discrete Global Grids. 
   Santa Barbara, CA, USA: National Center for Geographic Information & Analysis.

   Canadian Ice Service. 1992. Ice thickness climatology, 1961 - 1990 normals. 
   Minis. Supply Serv. Can. En. 57-28. Can. Commun. Group, Ottawa, Ont. 277 pp.

   Canadian Ice Service, 1971-2000: Canadian Digital Regional Ice Charts, Ottawa, 
   Ont., unpublished.

   Carrieres, T. 2000. Documentation for the Canadian Ice Service digital sea ice 
   database. Can. Ice Serv., Ottawa, Ontario. 49 pp.

   Chapman, W.L., and J.E. Walsh. 1991, updated 1996. Arctic and Southern Ocean 
   sea ice concentrations. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. 
   Digital media.

   Comiso, J. C., and R. Kwok. 1996. Surface and radiative characteristics of the 
   summer Arctic sea ice cover from multi-sensor satellite observations. Journal 
   of Geophysical Research 101 (C12): 28, 397-28, 416.

   
DeAbreu, R. J. Yackel, D. Barber, M. Arkett. 2001. Operational satellite 
   sensing of Arctic first-year sea ice melt. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 
   27(5), 487-501.

   
Dedrick, K., K. Partington, M. Van Woert, C. A. Bertoia, and D. Benner. 2001. 
   U. S. National/Naval Ice Center Digital Sea Ice Data and Climatology. Canadian 
   Journal of Remote Sensing 27(5), 457-475.

   Environment Canada, 2005. Manual of Standard Procedures for Observing and 
   Reporting Ice Conditions (MANICE). Issuing authority: Assistant Deputy 
   Minister, Meteorological Service of Canada. Available online. 
   (http://ice-glaces.ec.gc.ca/App/WsvPageDsp.cfm?ID=172&LnId=23&Lang=eng)

    Fetterer, F., compiler. 2006. A selection of documentation related to 
   National Ice Center sea ice charts in digital format. NSIDC Special Report 13. 
   Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

   Fetterer, F., and V. Troisi. 1997. AARI 10-Day Arctic Ocean EASE-Grid sea ice 
   observations. Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital 
   media.

   Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of melt ponds on Arctic 
   sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (C11): 24, 821-24, 835.

   Geiger, C. 2006. Propagation of uncertainties in sea ice thickness 
   calculations from basin-scale operational observations: A report prepared for 
   the International Ice Charting Working Group and the National/Naval Ice 
   Center. ERDC/CRREL TR-06-16. 39 pp.

   Jeffers, S., T. A. Agnerw, B. T. Alt, R. De Abreu and S. McCourt. 2001. 
   Investigating the anomalous sea ice conditions in the Canadian High Arctic 
   (Queen Elizabeth Islands) during summer of 1998. Annals of Glaciology 33, 
   507-512. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. 2004. 

   
SIGRID-3 : a vector archive format for sea ice charts / developed by the 
   International Ice Charting Working Group's ad hoc format team for the WMO 
   Global Digital Sea Ice Data Bank Project. (Geneva) : World Meteorological 
   Organization ; (Paris) : Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

   Knight, R. W. 1984. Introduction to a new sea-ice database. Annals of 
   Glaciology 5. (Reproduced in NSIDC Special Report 13).

   Kokaly, R. F. 1996. Methods for regridding AARI data in SIGRID format to the 
   EASE-Grid projection. NSIDC Special Report 9.

   Kokaly, R.F. 1996. NSIDC Special Report - 6: An evaluation of the results from 
   using nearest neighbor and area min/max resampling methods to regrid AARI 
   digitized sea ice charts to EASE-Grid.

   Kwok, R. 2002. Sea ice concentration estimates from satellite passive 
   microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophysical Research 
   Letters 29 (9): 10.1029/202GL014787.

   Maillard, P. and D. A. Clausi. 2005. Operational map-guided classification of 
   SAR sea ice imagery. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 
   43, No. 12, pp 2940-2951, doi 10.1109/TGRS.2005.857897

   McKenna, P., and W. N. Meier. 2002. SSM/I sea ice algorithm inter-comparison: 
   Operational case studies from the National Ice Center, IGARSS Proceedings, 
   INT_A32_04, Toronto, 24-28 June 2002.

   Meier, W. N, M. L. van Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational 
   SSM/I ice concentration algorithms, Ann. Glaciology, 33, 102-108.

   Meier, Walter, 2005. Comparison of Passive Microwave Ice Concentration 
   Algorithm Retrievals With AVHRR Imagery in Arctic Peripheral Seas. IEEE 
   Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol 40, No. 6, pp 1324-1334.

   Meier, W. N, M. L. van Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational 
   SSM/I ice concentration algorithms, Ann. Glaciology, 33, 102-108.

   Meier, W. N., T. Maksym and M.L. Van Woert, Evaluation of Arctic operational 
   passive microwave products: a case study in the Barents Sea during October 
   2001. Ice in the Environment: Proceedings of the 16th IAHR International 
   Symposium on Ice, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2nd-6th December 2002, International 
   Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research

   Melling, H. 2002. Sea ice of the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. J. 
   Geophys. Res., 107, C11, 3181, doi:10.1029/2001JC001102.

   NSIDC, Boulder, compiler. 2005. The Dehn collection of Arctic sea ice charts, 
   1953-1986. Boulder, CO : National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

   Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick., 2003. Late 
   twentieth century Northern Hemisphere sea-ice record from U.S. National Ice 
   Center ice charts, J. Geophys. Res., 108, C11, 3343, doi:10.1029/2002JC001623.

   Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L.V. Alexander, D. 
   P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan. 2003. Global analysis of sea surface 
   temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late 
   nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research. 108 (D14). 
   doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.

   Ropelewski, C. F. 1983. Spatial and temporal variations in Antarctic sea ice 
   (1973-82). Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, vol 22, 470-473.

   Sea Ice Climatic Atlas: Northern Canadian Waters 1971-2000/Atlas climatique 
   des glaces de mer: Eaux du nord canadien 1971-2000, Canadian Ice Service, SBN 
   0-662-61973-3.

   Singarayer, J. S., P. J. Valdes, and J. L. Bamber. 2005. The atmospheric 
   impact of uncertainties in recent Arctic sea ice reconstructions, Journal of 
   Climate, 18, 3996-4012.

   van Woert., M. 2002. U. S. Navy operational sea ice remote sensing. IGARSS 
   Proceedings, INT_A32_04, Toronto, 24-28 June 2002.

   Willis, Z. M, Foster, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 200. National Ice 
   Center/Naval Ice Center support to submarine operations Undersea Warfare: 
   Issue 8, pp. 18-21.

   World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1970. WMO sea-ice nomenclature: 
   Terminology, codes and illustrated glossary. Geneva: Secretariat of the World 
   Meteorological Organization.

   World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 2000. Sea-ice information services in 
   the world. Geneva : Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization. 
   WMO-574.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) is an inter-agency sea ice analysis and 
   forecasting center comprised of the Department of Commerce/NOAA, the 
   Department of Defense/U.S. Navy, and the Department of Homeland Security/U.S. 
   Coast Guard components. Since 1972, NIC has produced Arctic and Antarctic sea 
   ice charts. This data set is comprised of Arctic sea ice concentration 
   climatology derived from the NIC weekly or biweekly operational ice-chart time 
   series. The charts used in the climatology are from 1972 through 2007; and the 
   monthly climatology products are median, maximum, minimum, first quartile, and 
   third quartile concentrations, as well as frequency of occurrence of ice at 
   any concentration for the entire period of record as well as for 10-year and 
   5-year periods. These climatologies and the charts from which they are derived 
   are provided in the 25-km Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) binary 
   (.bin) format. The climatologies are also available in ArcGIS geodatabases 
   (.mdb), and GIF format browse files (.gif) are also provided.

   NIC charts are produced through the analyses of available in situ, remote 
   sensing, and model data sources. They are generated primarily for mission 
   planning and safety of navigation. NIC charts generally show more ice than do 
   passive microwave derived sea ice concentrations, particularly in the summer 
   when passive microwave algorithms tend to underestimate ice concentration. The 
   record of sea ice concentration from the NIC series is believed to be more 
   accurate than that from passive microwave sensors, especially from the 
   mid-1990s on (see references at the end of this documentation), but it lacks 
   the consistency of some passive microwave time series.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02171.html
   Description: Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02140.html
   Group: Description

      Morphometric Characteristics of Ice and Snow in the Arctic Basin: Aircraft 
      Landing Observations from the Former Soviet Union, 1928-1989

   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02186.html
   Description: Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02176.html
   Description: Sea Ice Charts of the Russian Arctic in Gridded Format, 1933-2006
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02182.html
   Description: Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g01111.html
   Description: The Dehn Collection of Arctic Sea Ice Charts, 1953-1986
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2006-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-10-01
DIF_Revision_History: Changed Browse Image to Search Database