Timing and Statistics of Autumn and Spring Annual Snow Cover for the Northern Hemisphere, 1972 to 2000

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Entry ID

G02168

Summary

The National Snow and Ice Data Center hosts a time-series data set comprising annual snow cover data for the Northern Hemisphere (covering land primarily over 45 degrees North) from 1972 to 2000. Data are presented for land areas that exhibited snow cover in each of the 29 years. Variables are the week of snow disappearance, the week of snow cover onset, and the duration of the snow-free period. These variables were derived from operational NOAA weekly snow cover charts that have been quality controlled by the Rutgers University Global Snow Lab. For each year of the 29-year period, there are three binary files with data in an 89 x 89 cell grid. The week of the first detected snow cover in the fall is included in the WFS file, the week of the last observed snow cover in the spring is given in the WLS file, and the duration of snow-free period in weeks is given in the DSF file. Data are also provided in ASCII format summary files. In addition, summary statistics for each parameter are provided. These are grids of the mean and the standard deviation for the three parameters. Gridded latitude and longitude files are also included with this data set.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 90°     S: 0°     E: 180°     W: -180°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Dye, D.
Dataset Title: Timing and Statistics of Autumn and Spring Annual Snow Cover for the Northern Hemisphere, 1972 to 2000
Dataset Release Date: 2005-12-21
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02168.html
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5F18WNC

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1972-01-01
Stop Date: 2000-12-31

Location Keywords

  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover Duration, Timing
  • Terrestrial Hydrosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover Duration, Timing

Ancillary Keywords

  • NOAA
  • Northern Hemisphere
  • NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere

Platform

  • DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
  • GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
  • GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
  • NOAA POES NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites
  • SATELLITES

Instrument

  • AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
  • GOES I-M IMAGER
  • SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

Quality

By inspecting visible band satellite imagery, analysts from the NOAA Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution (OSDPD), Satellite Services Division (SSD), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), produced an analogue Northern Hemisphere snow/ice map. (More recently, production of this product has taken place in a digital environment. (See IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 4 km and 24 km Resolution and NOAA Operational Daily Snow Cover Analysis pages at http://nsidc.org for more information.) The weekly version of this product is the basis for the subject data set. Studies cited in Dye (2002) note that the NOAA snow charts have limitations because they are created using visible band imagery. For example, the snow cover can be difficult to detect due to 'low solar illumination and high solar zenith angles, dense forest cover and cloud cover'. According to Dye, these limitations reduce the reliability of the data set more significantly for local or regional scale studies than for global analyses.

This study did not incorporate direct validation techniques, because there is not a practical way to validate broad scale estimates of snow-covered area. Instead, the author used the relationship between the snow cover cycle and the snow-covered area as an alternative method for assessing validity of the data, stating that 'a strong correlation between interannual fluctuations in SCA [snow covered area] and WLS, WFS and DSF can provide additional confidence in results from the snow-cover cycle analysis.' See Dye (2002) for more information.

The NOAA snow product has been widely used in climate studies, but it is important to note that it is an operational product. That is, it is produced in near real time to meet operational needs, and may have inconstancies that render it unsuitable for climatological studies. Work done at the Rutgers University Climate Laboratory Global Snow Lab addresses these inconsistencies.

Data Set Progress

complete

Originating Center

NOAA

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 40 KB
Distribution Format: Binary

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 951 KB
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Personnel

Dennis Dye
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 81 45-778-5594
Fax: 81 45-778-5706
Contact Address:

  • Frontier Research Center for Global Change
  • Group Leader, Ecosystem Change Research Program

City: Yokohama
Country: Japan

Dennis Dye
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 81 45-778-5594
Fax: 81 45-778-5706
Contact Address:

  • Frontier Research Center for Global Change
  • Group Leader, Ecosystem Change Research Program

City: Yokohama
Country: Japan

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Related URL

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Rutgers University Global Snow Lab

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 4 km and 24 km Resolutio

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 4 km and 24 km Resolution

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent Version 3

Reference

Dye, D.G. 2002. Variability and trends in the annual snow-cover cycle in Northern Hemisphere land areas, 1972-2000. Hydrological Processes 16: 3065-3077. Robinson, D.A., Dewey, K.F., and R.R. Heim Jr. 1993. Global snow cover monitoring: an update. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74: 1689-1696.

Robinson, D.A. Frei, A. and M. C. Serreze. 1995. Recent variations and regional relationships in Northern Hemisphere snow cover. Annals of Glaciology 21:71-76.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2005-12-21
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-11-19

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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