Entry_ID: G02159
Entry_Title: Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Statistics and Maps, 1999-2001
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Fetterer, F., S. Wilds, and J. Sloan. 
   Dataset_Title: Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Statistics and Maps, 1999-2001
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2008-08-18
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02159.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5PK0D32
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Florence
   Last_Name: Fetterer
   Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Stanley
   Last_Name: Wilds
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Denver Federal Center
      Address: Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center
      City: Lakewood
      Province_or_State: CO
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Jeffrey
   Last_Name: Sloan
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Denver Federal Center
      Address: Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center
      City: Lakewood
      Province_or_State: CO
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Heat Flux
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Floes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Growth/Melt
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Roughness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Albedo
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Heat Flux
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Floes
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Growth/Melt
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Roughness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Spectral/Engineering
   Term: Visible Wavelengths
   Variable_Level_1: Visible Imagery
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Albedo
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
ISO_Topic_Category: Oceans
Keyword: Melt Pond Area
Keyword: Melt Pond Size Statistics
Source_Name: SATELLITES
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1999-08-01
   Stop_Date: 2001-09-30
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 73
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: BEAUFORT SEA
End_Group
Group: Quality

   Sun angle and light levels varied, and images varied in dynamic range. This 
   necessitated using supervised maximum likelihood classification for the best 
   possible classification result. Producing the surface type maps was a 
   subjective process for which no independent checks were available. Limitations 
   include the 1 m resolution of the images (smaller ponds are not detected), and 
   false detections because of ridge shadows. Based on earlier work (Fetterer and 
   Untersteiner 1998), we estimate the accuracy of the pond coverage at ±5 
   percent. This data set cannot approach the accuracy of detailed surface 
   observations like those acquired at SHEBA, but it does provide spatial 
   coverage and a number of samples that would be difficult to acquire in any 
   other way.

   The Excel file, Image_file_summary.xls, has a quality ranking for each image. 
   These were assigned subjectively when the supervised classification was 
   performed, and indicate confidence in the pond coverage statistics. Quality is 
   ranked optimal (highest confidence in results), good, questionable (use 
   results with care) and poor. Those ranked poor will not have surface type 
   coverage statistics data, but may have been processed only to obtain image 
   files that show floe morphology.

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: NOAA
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: Microsoft Excel
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 20 - 150 KB
   Distribution_Format: PNG
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 20 - 150 KB
   Distribution_Format: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 20 - 150 KB
   Distribution_Format: Geographic Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF) (.geotiff)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Barber D. G., J. Yackel . The physical, radiative and microwave scattering 
   characteristics of melt ponds on Arctic landfast sea ice. International 
   Journal of Remote Sensing, Volume 20, Number 10, 10 July 1999 , pp. 
   2069-2090(22)

   Duda, Richard O., and Peter E. Hart. 1973. Pattern classification and scene 
   analysis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 482 pp.

   Eicken, H., H. R. Krouse, D. Kadko, and D. K. Perovich (2002), Tracer studies 
   of pathways and rates of meltwater transport through Arctic summer sea ice, J. 
   Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JC000583.

   Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998a. Observations of Melt Ponds on Arctic 
   Sea Ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C11), 24,821-24,835

   Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner, Melt pond coverage statistics from 
   classified satellite data, in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing 
   Symposium, (on CD-ROM), IEEE 97CH36174, Seattle, WA, 1998b. Grenfell, T.C., 
   and G.A. Maykut. The optical properties of ice and snow in the Arctic basin. 
   Journal of Glaciology, 18 (80), 445-463, 1977.

   Langleben, M.P. Albedo of melting sea ice in the southern Beaufort sea, 
   Journal of Glaciology, 10 (58), 101-104, 1971.

   Moritz, R.E., J.A. Curry, A.S. Thorndike, and N. Untersteiner, SHEBA: a 
   Research Program on the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean, 34 pp., Polar 
   Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, 
   1993.

   Morassutti, M.P., and E.F. LeDrew, Albedo and Depth of Melt Ponds on Sea Ice, 
   International Journal of Climatology, 16, 817-838, 1996

   NSIDC. 2000. SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery, Version 1.0. Boulder, Colorado USA: 
   National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

   Perovich, D.K., and W.B.Tucker III, Arctic sea-ice conditions and the 
   distribution of solar radiation during summer, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 
   445-450, 1997.

   Perovich, D.K., C.S. Roesler, and W.S. Pegau, Variability in Arctic sea ice 
   optical properties, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C1), 1193-1208, 
   1998. Perovich, D. K., T. C. Grenfell, J. A. Richter-Menge, B. Light, W. B. 
   Tucker III, and H. Eicken, Thin and thinner: Sea ice mass balance measurements 
   during SHEBA, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 8050, doi:10.1029/2001JC001079, 2003. 
   Perovich, D.K., et al., Year on ice gives climate insights, EOS, Transactions 
   of the American Geophysical Union, 80, 481, 485-486, 1999.

   Perovich, D.K., T.C. Grenfell, B. Light, J.A. Richter-Menge, M. Sturm, W.B. 
   Tucker III, H. Eicken, G.A. Maykut, and B. Elder, SHEBA: Snow and Ice Studies, 
   CD-ROM, October, 1999. Perovich, D. K., W. B. Tucker III, and K. A. Ligett 
   (2002), Aerial observations of the evolution of ice surface conditions during 
   summer, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 8048, doi:10.1029/2000JC000449

   Richelson, J.T., Scientists in black, Scientific American, 278 (2), 48-55, 1998.

   Tschudi, M. A., J. A. Curry, and J. A. Maslanik (2001), Airborne observations 
   of summertime surface features and their effect on surface albedo during 
   FIRE/SHEBA, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D14), 15,335 15,344.

   Tschudi, M.A., J.A. Curry, and J.A. Maslanik, Determination of areal 
   surface-feature coverage in the Beaufort Sea using aircraft video data, Annals 
   of Glaciology, 25, 434-438, 1997.

   Yackel, J. J.; Barber, D. G.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Breneman, C., First-year 
   sea ice spring melt transitions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 
   time-series synthetic aperture radar data, 1992-2002, Hydrological Processes, 
   vol. 21, Issue 2, pp.253-265

End_Group
Group: Summary

   Visible band imagery from high-resolution satellites were acquired over four 
   Arctic Ocean sites (three in 1999) during the summers of 1999, 2000, and 2001. 
   The sites were within the median extent of the perennial ice pack. Imagery was 
   analyzed using supervised maximum likelihood classification to derive either 
   two (water and ice) or three (pond, open water, and ice) surface classes. 
   Clouds were masked by hand. The data set consists of tables of pond coverage 
   and size statistics for 500 m square cells within 10 km square images (image 
   resolution is 1 meter), along with the surface type maps called Image Derived 
   Products (IDPs) from which the pond statistics were derived. A total of 101 
   images over the three summers and four sites were used for pond statistics, 
   out of a total of 1056 images acquired. The images are irregularly spaced in 
   time.

   Data are stored in Microsoft Excel format and ASCII text, image files are 
   stored as GeoTIFF binary images, browse images in PNG, and JPG image files, 
   and are available from August 1999 and generally for May into September for 
   2000 and 2001 via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g01169.html
   Description: Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02180.html
   Description: SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2008-08-18
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-10-01
DIF_Revision_History: Changed term from Browse Images to Search Database