Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Statistics and Maps, 1999-2001

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Entry ID

G02159

Summary

Visible band imagery from high-resolution satellites were acquired over four Arctic Ocean sites (three in 1999) during the summers of 1999, 2000, and 2001. The sites were within the median extent of the perennial ice pack. Imagery was analyzed using supervised maximum likelihood classification to derive either two (water and ice) or three (pond, open water, and ice) surface classes. Clouds were masked by hand. The data set consists of tables of pond coverage and size statistics for 500 m square cells within 10 km square images (image resolution is 1 meter), along with the surface type maps called Image Derived Products (IDPs) from which the pond statistics were derived. A total of 101 images over the three summers and four sites were used for pond statistics, out of a total of 1056 images acquired. The images are irregularly spaced in time.

Data are stored in Microsoft Excel format and ASCII text, image files are stored as GeoTIFF binary images, browse images in PNG, and JPG image files, and are available from August 1999 and generally for May into September for 2000 and 2001 via FTP.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 90°     S: 73°     E: 180°     W: -180°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Fetterer, F., S. Wilds, and J. Sloan.
Dataset Title: Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Statistics and Maps, 1999-2001
Dataset Release Date: 2008-08-18
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02159.html
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5PK0D32

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1999-08-01
Stop Date: 2001-09-30

Location Keywords

  • OCEAN ARCTIC OCEAN
  • OCEAN ARCTIC OCEAN BEAUFORT SEA

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Heat Flux
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Floes
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Growth/Melt
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Roughness
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Cryosphere Snow/Ice Albedo
  • Oceans Sea Ice Heat Flux
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Floes
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Growth/Melt
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Roughness
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Spectral/Engineering Visible Wavelengths Visible Imagery
  • Terrestrial Hydrosphere Snow/Ice Albedo

Ancillary Keywords

  • Melt Pond Area
  • Melt Pond Size Statistics

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
  • Oceans

Platform

  • SATELLITES

Quality

Sun angle and light levels varied, and images varied in dynamic range. This necessitated using supervised maximum likelihood classification for the best possible classification result. Producing the surface type maps was a subjective process for which no independent checks were available. Limitations include the 1 m resolution of the images (smaller ponds are not detected), and false detections because of ridge shadows. Based on earlier work (Fetterer and Untersteiner 1998), we estimate the accuracy of the pond coverage at ±5 percent. This data set cannot approach the accuracy of detailed surface observations like those acquired at SHEBA, but it does provide spatial coverage and a number of samples that would be difficult to acquire in any other way.

The Excel file, Image_file_summary.xls, has a quality ranking for each image. These were assigned subjectively when the supervised classification was performed, and indicate confidence in the pond coverage statistics. Quality is ranked optimal (highest confidence in results), good, questionable (use results with care) and poor. Those ranked poor will not have surface type coverage statistics data, but may have been processed only to obtain image files that show floe morphology.

Data Set Progress

complete

Originating Center

NOAA

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: Microsoft Excel

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 20 - 150 KB
Distribution Format: PNG

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 20 - 150 KB
Distribution Format: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 20 - 150 KB
Distribution Format: Geographic Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF) (.geotiff)

Personnel

Florence Fetterer
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Country: USA

Stanley Wilds
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • Denver Federal Center
  • Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center

City: Lakewood
Province or State: CO
Country: USA

Jeffrey Sloan
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • Denver Federal Center
  • Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center

City: Lakewood
Province or State: CO
Country: USA

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Related URL

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery

Reference

Barber D. G., J. Yackel . The physical, radiative and microwave scattering characteristics of melt ponds on Arctic landfast sea ice. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Volume 20, Number 10, 10 July 1999 , pp. 2069-2090(22)

Duda, Richard O., and Peter E. Hart. 1973. Pattern classification and scene analysis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 482 pp.

Eicken, H., H. R. Krouse, D. Kadko, and D. K. Perovich (2002), Tracer studies of pathways and rates of meltwater transport through Arctic summer sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JC000583.

Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998a. Observations of Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C11), 24,821-24,835

Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner, Melt pond coverage statistics from classified satellite data, in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, (on CD-ROM), IEEE 97CH36174, Seattle, WA, 1998b. Grenfell, T.C., and G.A. Maykut. The optical properties of ice and snow in the Arctic basin. Journal of Glaciology, 18 (80), 445-463, 1977.

Langleben, M.P. Albedo of melting sea ice in the southern Beaufort sea, Journal of Glaciology, 10 (58), 101-104, 1971.

Moritz, R.E., J.A. Curry, A.S. Thorndike, and N. Untersteiner, SHEBA: a Research Program on the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean, 34 pp., Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, 1993.

Morassutti, M.P., and E.F. LeDrew, Albedo and Depth of Melt Ponds on Sea Ice, International Journal of Climatology, 16, 817-838, 1996

NSIDC. 2000. SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery, Version 1.0. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Perovich, D.K., and W.B.Tucker III, Arctic sea-ice conditions and the distribution of solar radiation during summer, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 445-450, 1997.

Perovich, D.K., C.S. Roesler, and W.S. Pegau, Variability in Arctic sea ice optical properties, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C1), 1193-1208, 1998. Perovich, D. K., T. C. Grenfell, J. A. Richter-Menge, B. Light, W. B. Tucker III, and H. Eicken, Thin and thinner: Sea ice mass balance measurements during SHEBA, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 8050, doi:10.1029/2001JC001079, 2003. Perovich, D.K., et al., Year on ice gives climate insights, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 80, 481, 485-486, 1999.

Perovich, D.K., T.C. Grenfell, B. Light, J.A. Richter-Menge, M. Sturm, W.B. Tucker III, H. Eicken, G.A. Maykut, and B. Elder, SHEBA: Snow and Ice Studies, CD-ROM, October, 1999. Perovich, D. K., W. B. Tucker III, and K. A. Ligett (2002), Aerial observations of the evolution of ice surface conditions during summer, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 8048, doi:10.1029/2000JC000449

Richelson, J.T., Scientists in black, Scientific American, 278 (2), 48-55, 1998.

Tschudi, M. A., J. A. Curry, and J. A. Maslanik (2001), Airborne observations of summertime surface features and their effect on surface albedo during FIRE/SHEBA, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D14), 15,335 15,344.

Tschudi, M.A., J.A. Curry, and J.A. Maslanik, Determination of areal surface-feature coverage in the Beaufort Sea using aircraft video data, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 434-438, 1997.

Yackel, J. J.; Barber, D. G.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Breneman, C., First-year sea ice spring melt transitions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from time-series synthetic aperture radar data, 1992-2002, Hydrological Processes, vol. 21, Issue 2, pp.253-265

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2008-08-18
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-10-01

Metadata Views

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FGDC HTML

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ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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