Entry_ID: G02135
Entry_Title: Sea Ice Index
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie. 
   Dataset_Title: Sea Ice Index
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2002-12-05updated daily
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02135.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5QJ7F7W
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: F.
   Last_Name: Fetterer
   Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: CIRES
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: 449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Kenneth
   Last_Name: Knowles
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Walt
   Last_Name: Meier
   Email: walter.n.meier@nasa.gov
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Matthew
   Last_Name: Savoie
   Email: savoie@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Extent
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Growth/Melt
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Reflectance
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Extent
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Growth/Melt
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Reflectance
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
ISO_Topic_Category: Oceans
Keyword: NOAA
Keyword: Sea Ice
Keyword: Sea Ice Anomalies
Keyword: Sea Ice Conditions
Keyword: Sea Ice Trends
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Sensor_Name: SSMIS > Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder
Source_Name: DMSP > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-3/F17 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Source_Name: SATELLITES
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1979-01-01
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -90
   Northernmost_Latitude: -39.23
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 30.98
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ANTARCTICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: NOAA
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA @ NSIDC > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: PNG
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002a. The use of operational i ce charts for 
   evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data. Internal Report of the 
   Meteorological Service of Canada. 34 pp.

   Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002b. Comparison of digitized Canadian ice 
   charts and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations. Procedures of the 
   International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July 24-28. Toronto: 
   Canada.

   Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of sea 
   ice parameters with the NIMBUS-7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 89 
   (D4): 5355-5369.

   Cavalieri, D.J., K.M. St. Germain and C.T. Swift. 1995. Reduction of weather 
   effects in the calculation of sea ice concentration with the DMSP SSM/I. 
   Journal of Glaciology 41: 455-464. Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 
   1990. DMSP SSM/I daily polar gridded sea ice concentrations. Edited by J. 
   Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. 
   Digital media.

   Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloerson, and H.J. Zwally. 1997, updated 2005. 
   Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I passive microwave 
   data, June to September 2001. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. 
   Digital media and CD-ROM. Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 2002, 
   updated daily. Near Real-Time DMSP SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice 
   Concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National 
   Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Comiso, J. C., and R. Kwok. 1996. 
   Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer arctic sea ice cover from 
   multi-sensor satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 
   (C12): 28, 397-28, 416.

   Comiso, J. C., and K. Steffen. 2001. Studies of Antarctic sea ice 
   concentrations from satellite data and their applications. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 106 (C12): 31, 361-31, 386. Emery, W. J., C. Fowler, and 
   J. Maslanik. 1994. Arctic sea ice concentration from Special Sensor Microwave 
   Imager and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 99: 18,329-18,342. Eppler, D.T., L.D. Farmer, A.W. 
   Lohanick, M.A. Anderson, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, C. Garrity, 
   T.C. Grenfell, M. Hallikainen, J.A. Maslanik, C. Mätzler, R.A. Melloh, I. 
   Rubinstein, and C.T. Swift. 1992. Passive microwave signatures of sea ice. In 
   Microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: 
   American Geophysical Union. 47-71.

   Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of melt ponds on arctic 
   sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (C11): 24,821-24,835.

   Hollinger, J.P., J.L. Peirce, and G.A. Poe. 1990. SSM/I Instrument Evaluation. 
   IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 28 (5): 781-790.

   Kwok, R. 2002. Sea ice concentration estimates from satellite passive 
   microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophysical Research 
   Letters 29 (9): 10.1029/202GL014787.

   Markus, T., and S. T. Dokken. 2002. Evaluation of late summer passive 
   microwave arctic sea ice retrievals. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and 
   Remote Sensing 40 (2): 348-356.  Meier, W. N., M .L. V. Woert, and C. Bertoia. 
   2001. Evaluation of operational SSM/I algorithms. Annals of Glaciology 33: 
   102-108.

   Meier, W. N. 2005. Comparison of passive microwave retrievals with AVHRR 
   imagery in arctic peripheral seas. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote 
   Sensing 43 (6): 1324-1337.

   Parkinson, C.L., D.J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H.J. Zwally, and J.C. Comiso. 
   1999. Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978-1996. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856.

   Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 2003. Late 
   twentieth century Northern Hemisphere sea-ice record from U.S. National Ice 
   Center ice charts. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C11): 3343. doi:10.1029/2002JC001623.

   Steffen, K., and A. Schweiger. 1991. NASA team algorithm for sea ice 
   concentration retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special 
   Sensor Microwave Imager: comparison with Landsat satellite imagery. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 96 (C12): 21,971-21,987.

   Steffen, K., J. Key, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, K.S. Germain, and 
   I. Rubinstein. 1992. The estimation of geophysical parameters using passive 
   microwave algorithms in microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. 
   Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 201-231.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The Sea Ice Index provides a quick look at Arctic- and Antarctic-wide changes 
   in sea ice. It is a source for consistent, up-to-date sea ice extent and 
   concentration images and data values from November 1978 to the present.

   Sea Ice Index images depict ice cover and trends in ice cover in the Arctic 
   and Antarctic oceans. Sea Ice Index data files tabulate ice extent in numbers. 
   The images and data are produced in a consistent way that makes the Index 
   time-series appropriate for use when looking at long-term trends in sea ice 
   cover. Both monthly and daily products are available. However, monthly 
   products are better to use for long-term trend analysis because errors in the 
   daily product tend to be averaged out in the monthly product and because 
   day-to-day variations are often the result of short-term weather. 

   Monthly images show sea ice extent with an outline of the median extent for 
   that month for comparison. Other monthly images show sea ice concentration as 
   well as trends in concentration for that month. Monthly extent products are 
   also available as geographic information systems (GIS) compatible shapefiles. 
   Plain ASCII text data files contain monthly mean extent and area, in millions 
   of square kilometers, by year. These monthly extent numbers are used for 
   graphs of extent anomalies with trend lines and significance intervals. 
   Anomalies and median extent are calculated using a 30-year reference period of 
   1981 through 2010.

   Daily images show sea ice extent, with an outline of the median extent for 
   that day for comparison, and sea ice concentration. Plain ASCII text data 
   files contain daily extent, in millions of square kilometers, for almost every 
   day from 1978 onward. These daily extent numbers are used for graphs of daily 
   extent over the last four months.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice/index.html
   Description: Sea Ice Data at NSIDC
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice/
   Description: Sea Ice Products at NSIDC
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2002-12-05
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-01-06
DIF_Revision_History:  Small change to citation, no QC needed.