Sea Ice Index

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Entry ID

G02135

Summary

The Sea Ice Index provides a quick look at Arctic- and Antarctic-wide changes in sea ice. It is a source for consistent, up-to-date sea ice extent and concentration images and data values from November 1978 to the present.

Sea Ice Index images depict ice cover and trends in ice cover in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Sea Ice Index data files tabulate ice extent in numbers. The images and data are produced in a consistent way that makes the Index time-series appropriate for use when looking at long-term trends in sea ice cover. Both monthly and daily products are available. However, monthly products are better to use for long-term trend analysis because errors in the daily product tend to be averaged out in the monthly product and because day-to-day variations are often the result of short-term weather.

Monthly images show sea ice extent with an outline of the median extent for that month for comparison. Other monthly images show sea ice concentration as well as trends in concentration for that month. Monthly extent products are also available as geographic information systems (GIS) compatible shapefiles. Plain ASCII text data files contain monthly mean extent and area, in millions of square kilometers, by year. These monthly extent numbers are used for graphs of extent anomalies with trend lines and significance intervals. Anomalies and median extent are calculated using a 30-year reference period of 1981 through 2010.

Daily images show sea ice extent, with an outline of the median extent for that day for comparison, and sea ice concentration. Plain ASCII text data files contain daily extent, in millions of square kilometers, for almost every day from 1978 onward. These daily extent numbers are used for graphs of daily extent over the last four months.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: -39.23°     S: -90°     E: 180°     W: -180°    
N: 90°     S: 30.98°     E: 180°     W: -180°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie.
Dataset Title: Sea Ice Index
Dataset Release Date: 2002-12-05updated daily
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02135.html
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5QJ7F7W

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1979-01-01

Location Keywords

  • CONTINENT ANTARCTICA
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION ARCTIC

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Ice Growth/Melt
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Reflectance
  • Cryosphere Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Extent
  • Oceans Sea Ice Ice Growth/Melt
  • Oceans Sea Ice Reflectance
  • Oceans Sea Ice Sea Ice Concentration

Ancillary Keywords

  • NOAA
  • Sea Ice
  • Sea Ice Anomalies
  • Sea Ice Conditions
  • Sea Ice Trends

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
  • Oceans

Platform

  • DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
  • DMSP 5D-3/F17 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
  • NIMBUS-7
  • SATELLITES

Instrument

  • SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
  • SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
  • SSMIS Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder

Data Set Progress

in work

Originating Center

NOAA

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: PNG

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Personnel

F. Fetterer
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • CIRES
  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • 449 UCB

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309
Country: USA

Kenneth Knowles
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:

  • Operational Systems, Inc.
  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Walt Meier
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: walter.n.meier@nasa.gov
Contact Address:

  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA

Matthew Savoie
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: savoie@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Related URL

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Sea Ice Data at NSIDC

VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Sea Ice Products at NSIDC

Reference

Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002a. The use of operational i ce charts for evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data. Internal Report of the Meteorological Service of Canada. 34 pp.

Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002b. Comparison of digitized Canadian ice charts and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations. Procedures of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July 24-28. Toronto: Canada.

Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of sea ice parameters with the NIMBUS-7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 89 (D4): 5355-5369.

Cavalieri, D.J., K.M. St. Germain and C.T. Swift. 1995. Reduction of weather effects in the calculation of sea ice concentration with the DMSP SSM/I. Journal of Glaciology 41: 455-464. Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 1990. DMSP SSM/I daily polar gridded sea ice concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloerson, and H.J. Zwally. 1997, updated 2005. Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I passive microwave data, June to September 2001. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media and CD-ROM. Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 2002, updated daily. Near Real-Time DMSP SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Comiso, J. C., and R. Kwok. 1996. Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer arctic sea ice cover from multi-sensor satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (C12): 28, 397-28, 416.

Comiso, J. C., and K. Steffen. 2001. Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (C12): 31, 361-31, 386. Emery, W. J., C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik. 1994. Arctic sea ice concentration from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 99: 18,329-18,342. Eppler, D.T., L.D. Farmer, A.W. Lohanick, M.A. Anderson, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, C. Garrity, T.C. Grenfell, M. Hallikainen, J.A. Maslanik, C. Mätzler, R.A. Melloh, I. Rubinstein, and C.T. Swift. 1992. Passive microwave signatures of sea ice. In Microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 47-71.

Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of melt ponds on arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (C11): 24,821-24,835.

Hollinger, J.P., J.L. Peirce, and G.A. Poe. 1990. SSM/I Instrument Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 28 (5): 781-790.

Kwok, R. 2002. Sea ice concentration estimates from satellite passive microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 10.1029/202GL014787.

Markus, T., and S. T. Dokken. 2002. Evaluation of late summer passive microwave arctic sea ice retrievals. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 40 (2): 348-356. Meier, W. N., M .L. V. Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational SSM/I algorithms. Annals of Glaciology 33: 102-108.

Meier, W. N. 2005. Comparison of passive microwave retrievals with AVHRR imagery in arctic peripheral seas. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 43 (6): 1324-1337.

Parkinson, C.L., D.J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H.J. Zwally, and J.C. Comiso. 1999. Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856.

Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 2003. Late twentieth century Northern Hemisphere sea-ice record from U.S. National Ice Center ice charts. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C11): 3343. doi:10.1029/2002JC001623.

Steffen, K., and A. Schweiger. 1991. NASA team algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imager: comparison with Landsat satellite imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research 96 (C12): 21,971-21,987.

Steffen, K., J. Key, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, K.S. Germain, and I. Rubinstein. 1992. The estimation of geophysical parameters using passive microwave algorithms in microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 201-231.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2002-12-05
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-01-06

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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