Entry_ID: G02131
Entry_Title: Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1915-1997
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Brown, R. D. 
   Dataset_Title: Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1915-1997
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2002-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02131.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5V985Z6
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Ross
   Middle_Name: D.
   Last_Name: Brown
   Email: ross.brown@ec.gc.ca
   Phone: 1 514 282-6464 x335
   Fax: 1   514-282-713 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Environment Canada @ Ouranos
      Address: 550 Sherbrooke St. West, 19th Floor
      City: Montréal
      Province_or_State: QC
      Postal_Code: H3A 1B9
      Country: Canada
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Ross
   Middle_Name: D.
   Last_Name: Brown
   Email: ross.brown@ec.gc.ca
   Phone: 1 514 282-6464 x335
   Fax: 1   514-282-713 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Environment Canada @ Ouranos
      Address: 550 Sherbrooke St. West, 19th Floor
      City: Montréal
      Province_or_State: QC
      Postal_Code: H3A 1B9
      Country: Canada
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
   Detailed_Variable: Snow Extent
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
   Detailed_Variable: Snow Extent
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: areally-weighted mean snow depth
Keyword: HDCD
Keyword: Historical Daily Climate Dataset
Keyword: linear regression analysis
Keyword: mean snow depth
Keyword: North American mid-latitudes
Keyword: reconstructed
Keyword: SCE
Keyword: Snow
Keyword: Snow Cover
Keyword: snow cover extent
Keyword: Snow Depth
Keyword: Snow Extent
Keyword: Snow Water Equivalent
Keyword: SWE
Sensor_Name: AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Sensor_Name: VHRR > Very High Resolution Radiometer
Source_Name: GROUND STATIONS
Source_Name: NOAA-4 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-4
Source_Name: NOAA POES > NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites
Source_Name: SATELLITES
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1915-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1997-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 0
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: EURASIA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA @ NSIDC > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 18 KB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Brown, R.D. 2000. Northern Hemisphere snow cover variability and change, 
   1915-1997. J. Climate 13: 2339-2355.

   Brown, R.D. 1997. Historical variability in Northern Hemisphere spring snow 
   covered area. Annals of Glaciology 25: 340-346.

   Brown, R.D. and R.O. Braaten, 1998. Spatial and temporal variability of 
   Canadian monthly snow depths, 1946-1995. Atmosphere-Ocean 36: 37-45.  
   Easterling, D.R., P. Jamason, D. Bowman, P.Y. Hughes and E. H. Mason. 1997. 
   Daily snowdepth  measurements from 195 stations in the United States. 
   ORNL/CDIAC-95, NDP-059.

   Frei, A., M.G. Hughes and D.A. Robinson. 1999. North American snow extent: 
   1910-1994. Int'l. J. Climatology 19: 1517-1534.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set contains time series of monthly snow cover extent (SCE) for 
   North America, Eurasia, and the Northern Hemisphere from 1915 to 1997, based 
   on snow cover reconstruction and NOAA satellite data.  The reconstruction 
   method used in situ snow depth and daily climate data from the U.S.A., Canada, 
   China, and the former Soviet Union to generate a monthly snow cover index, 
   which was found to be closely related to satellite-derived estimates of SCE in 
   certain months. Brown (2000) describes the method, which is considered to be 
   more robust than SCE reconstruction based on statistical methods (see Brown, 
   1997; Frei et al., 1999).

   In addition, the data set contains time series of annual variation in 
   areally-averaged monthly snow depth and (SWE) for the North American grid 
   domain used to derive the snow cover index.  These provide additional insights 
   into secular changes in snow cover over North America since SCE and depth 
   variations are not always positively correlated.

   Data are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02130.html
   Description: Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/G02131.html
   Description: This site provides access to data and documentation.
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2002-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-03-07
DIF_Revision_History:  Added DOI