Entry_ID: G02130
Entry_Title: Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Frei, A. and D. Robinson. 
   Dataset_Title: Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2002-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02130.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5000014
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Allan
   Last_Name: Frei
   Email: afrei@geo.hunter.cuny.edu
   Phone: 1 212 772-5322 
   Fax: 1 212  772-5268 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Department of Geography
      Address: Hunter College
      Address: City University of New York
      Address: Rm 1006 North Building
      Address: 695 Park Avenue
      City: New York
      Province_or_State: NY
      Postal_Code: 10021
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Allan
   Last_Name: Frei
   Email: afrei@geo.hunter.cuny.edu
   Phone: 1 212 772-5322 
   Fax: 1 212  772-5268 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Department of Geography
      Address: Hunter College
      Address: City University of New York
      Address: Rm 1006 North Building
      Address: 695 Park Avenue
      City: New York
      Province_or_State: NY
      Postal_Code: 10021
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: David
   Last_Name: Robinson
   Email: drobins@rci.rutgers.edu
   Phone: 1 732 445-4741 x
   Fax: 1 732  445-0006 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Rutgers University
      Address: Department of Geography
      Address: New Jersey State Climatologist
      Address: Rutgers University
      Address: 54 Joyce Kilmer Avenue
      City: Piscataway
      Province_or_State: NJ
      Postal_Code: 08854-8054
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: David
   Last_Name: Robinson
   Email: drobins@rci.rutgers.edu
   Phone: 1 732 445-4741 x
   Fax: 1 732  445-0006 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Rutgers University
      Address: Department of Geography
      Address: New Jersey State Climatologist
      Address: Rutgers University
      Address: 54 Joyce Kilmer Avenue
      City: Piscataway
      Province_or_State: NJ
      Postal_Code: 08854-8054
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
   Detailed_Variable: Snow Extent
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
   Detailed_Variable: Snow Extent
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: HDCD
Keyword: Historical Daily Climate Dataset
Keyword: linear regression analysis
Keyword: North American snow extent
Keyword: reconstructed
Keyword: Snow
Keyword: Snow Extent
Sensor_Name: AVHRR > Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
Sensor_Name: VHRR > Very High Resolution Radiometer
Source_Name: GROUND STATIONS
Source_Name: NOAA-4 > National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-4
Source_Name: NOAA POES > NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites
Source_Name: SATELLITES
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1900-12-01
   Stop_Date: 1993-03-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 35
   Northernmost_Latitude: 49
   Westernmost_Longitude: -125
   Easternmost_Longitude: -60
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
End_Group
Group: Quality

   Since the method is based on regression, variability is underestimated and 
   therefore the magnitude of some extreme values is underestimated. However, in 
   no case during the satellite era, when data collected both by satellite and at 
   stations were available, was the sign of the reconstructed deviation from the 
   mean different than observed.

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 8 KB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Frei, A. and D. A. Robinson. 1999. Northern Hemisphere snow extent: regional 
   variability 1972-1994. International Journal of Climatology 19: 1535-1560.  
   Frei, A., D. A. Robinson and M. G. Hughes. 1999. North American snow extent: 
   1900-1994. International Journal of Climatology 19: 1517-1534.

   Robinson, D. A. 1993. Historical daily climatic data for the United States. 
   Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology. Anaheim, CA. 
   American Meteorological Society: 264-269.

   Robinson, D. A., K. F. Dewey and R. R. J. Heim. 1993. Global snow cover 
   monitoring: an update.  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74(9): 
   1689-1696.

   Robinson, D. A. and A. Frei 1999. Seasonal variability of Northern Hemisphere 
   snow extent using visible satellite data. Professional Geographer. 52(2): 
   307-315.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values 
   for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of 
   satellite and station observations and based the reconstruction on linear 
   regressions between the two types of observations. The data also includes 
   standard errors of estimates as well as the observed values upon which the 
   regressions were based.

   Station-based snow observations are available for dates since the early 
   twentieth century but lack comprehensive spatial coverage. A remotely sensed 
   product based on visible-band imagery provides more complete spatial coverage 
   but has only been available since the early 1970s. Since the reconstructed 
   values are based on regression, variability is underestimated and therefore 
   the magnitude of some extreme values is underestimated.

   Data are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02131.html
   Group: Description

      Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover 
      Extent, 1900-1997

   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/G02130.html
   Description: This site provides access to data and documentation.
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2002-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-03-07
DIF_Revision_History:  Added DOI