Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

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Entry ID

G02130

Summary

This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite and station observations and based the reconstruction on linear regressions between the two types of observations. The data also includes standard errors of estimates as well as the observed values upon which the regressions were based.

Station-based snow observations are available for dates since the early twentieth century but lack comprehensive spatial coverage. A remotely sensed product based on visible-band imagery provides more complete spatial coverage but has only been available since the early 1970s. Since the reconstructed values are based on regression, variability is underestimated and therefore the magnitude of some extreme values is underestimated.

Data are available via FTP.

Geographic Coverage

 

Spatial Coordinates:
N: 49°     S: 35°     E: -60°     W: -125°    

Data Set Citation

Dataset Creator: Frei, A. and D. Robinson.
Dataset Title: Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993
Dataset Release Date: 2002-01-01
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02130.html
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5000014

Temporal Coverage

Start Date: 1900-12-01
Stop Date: 1993-03-31

Location Keywords

  • CONTINENT NORTH AMERICA

Science Keywords

  • Cryosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover Snow Extent
  • Terrestrial Hydrosphere Snow/Ice Snow Cover Snow Extent

Ancillary Keywords

  • HDCD
  • Historical Daily Climate Dataset
  • linear regression analysis
  • North American snow extent
  • reconstructed
  • Snow
  • Snow Extent

ISO Topic Category (View Definitions)

  • Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere

Platform

  • GROUND STATIONS
  • NOAA-4 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-4
  • NOAA POES NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites
  • SATELLITES

Instrument

  • AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
  • VHRR Very High Resolution Radiometer

Quality

Since the method is based on regression, variability is underestimated and therefore the magnitude of some extreme values is underestimated. However, in no case during the satellite era, when data collected both by satellite and at stations were available, was the sign of the reconstructed deviation from the mean different than observed.

Data Set Progress

complete

Data Center

National Snow and Ice Data Center
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel

Name: NSIDC User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199
Fax: 1 303 492-2468
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel

Name: NOAA User Services
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Distribution

Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 8 KB
Distribution Format: ASCII Text (.txt)

Personnel

Allan Frei
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 212 772-5322
Fax: 1 212 772-5268
Email: afrei@geo.hunter.cuny.edu
Contact Address:

  • Department of Geography
  • Hunter College
  • City University of New York
  • Rm 1006 North Building
  • 695 Park Avenue

City: New York
Province or State: NY
Postal Code: 10021

Allan Frei
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 212 772-5322
Fax: 1 212 772-5268
Email: afrei@geo.hunter.cuny.edu
Contact Address:

  • Department of Geography
  • Hunter College
  • City University of New York
  • Rm 1006 North Building
  • 695 Park Avenue

City: New York
Province or State: NY
Postal Code: 10021

David Robinson
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 732 445-4741 x
Fax: 1 732 445-0006 x
Email: drobins@rci.rutgers.edu
Contact Address:

  • Rutgers University
  • Department of Geography
  • New Jersey State Climatologist
  • Rutgers University
  • 54 Joyce Kilmer Avenue

City: Piscataway
Province or State: NJ
Postal Code: 08854-8054

David Robinson
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 1 732 445-4741 x
Fax: 1 732 445-0006 x
Email: drobins@rci.rutgers.edu
Contact Address:

  • Rutgers University
  • Department of Geography
  • New Jersey State Climatologist
  • Rutgers University
  • 54 Joyce Kilmer Avenue

City: Piscataway
Province or State: NJ
Postal Code: 08854-8054

NSIDC User Services
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
Fax: 1 303 492-2468 x
Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
Contact Address:

  • National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • CIRES, 449 UCB
  • University of Colorado

City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA

Related URL

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1900-1997

VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
This site provides access to data and documentation.

Reference

Frei, A. and D. A. Robinson. 1999. Northern Hemisphere snow extent: regional variability 1972-1994. International Journal of Climatology 19: 1535-1560. Frei, A., D. A. Robinson and M. G. Hughes. 1999. North American snow extent: 1900-1994. International Journal of Climatology 19: 1517-1534.

Robinson, D. A. 1993. Historical daily climatic data for the United States. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology. Anaheim, CA. American Meteorological Society: 264-269.

Robinson, D. A., K. F. Dewey and R. R. J. Heim. 1993. Global snow cover monitoring: an update. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74(9): 1689-1696.

Robinson, D. A. and A. Frei 1999. Seasonal variability of Northern Hemisphere snow extent using visible satellite data. Professional Geographer. 52(2): 307-315.

Metadata Name and Version

Metadata Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata Version: 9.7

Creation and Review Dates

DIF Creation Date: 2002-01-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-03-07

Metadata Views

DIF Text-Only

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in plain text

DIF XML

Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in Extensible Markup Language (XML)

FGDC HTML

U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)

ISO HTML

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19115:2003 Geographic Information Metadata

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