Entry_ID: G01360
Entry_Title: Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: National Snow and Ice Data Center. 
   Dataset_Title: Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01updated 2006
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g01360.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N54Q7RWK
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: W.
   Middle_Name: B.
   Last_Name: Tucker III
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: S.
   Middle_Name: F.
   Last_Name: Ackley
   Email: sackley@pol.ne
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: D.
   Last_Name: Eppler
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: D.
   Last_Name: Farmer
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: N.
   Middle_Name: R.
   Last_Name: Davis
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Peter
   Last_Name: Wadhams
   Email: pw11@damtp.cam.ac.uk
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Cambridge
      Address: Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics
      Address: Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA
      City: Cambridge
      Country: England
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Y.
   Last_Name: Yu
   Email: yanling@apl.washington.edu
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Washington
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: M.
   Last_Name: Wensnahan
   Email: thinice@apl.washington.edu
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Washington
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: D.
   Middle_Name: A.
   Last_Name: Rothrock
   Email: rothrock@apl.washington.edu
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Washington
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Deformation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Depth/Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Roughness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Leads
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Deformation
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Depth/Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Roughness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Leads
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
ISO_Topic_Category: Oceans
Keyword: Declassified Naval Submarine Data
Keyword: Ice Draft
Keyword: Moored Upward Looking Sonar-project
Keyword: Submarine Data
Keyword: Upward Looking Sonar
Sensor_Name: SONAR > Sound Navigation and Ranging
Sensor_Name: UPWARD LOOKING SONAR
Source_Name: SUBMARINE
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1960-02-01
   Stop_Date: 2005-11-30
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 70
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
End_Group
Group: Reference

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   1976. Thickness and roughness variations of Arctic multiyear sea ice. CRREL 
   Report 76-18, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 
   Hanover, NH, 25 pp.

   Alam, A. 2000. Surface turbulent fluxes over arctic leads. Ph.D. Thesis, 
   University of Colorado, 234 pp.

   Alam A., J. A. Curry, and M. A. Tschudi. 2001. A parameterization of the 
   lead-width distribution and turbulent surface heat flux for arctic sea ice. J. 
   Geophys. Res., in press, (SHEBA special issue).

   Bourke, R. and C. Garrett. 1987. Sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic 
   Ocean. Cold Reg. Sci. and Technol. 13: 259-280.

   Bourke, R. H., and R. G. Paquette. 1989. Estimating the thickness of sea ice, 
   J. Geophys. Res. 94, 919-923.

   Bourke, R. H. and A. S. McLaren. 1992. Contour mapping of Arctic Basin ice 
   draft and roughness parameters. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17,715-17,728.

   Comiso, J. C., P. Wadhams, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, J .P. Crawford, and W. 
   B. Tucker III. 1991. Top/bottom multisensor remote sensing of arctic sea ice. 
   J. Geophys. Res. 96 (C2): 2693-2709.

   Davis, N. R. and P. Wadhams. 1995. A statistical analysis of arctic pressure 
   ridge morphology, J. Geophys. Res., 100, C6 10915-10925.

   Drucker, R., S. Martin, and R. Moritz. 2003. Observations of ice thickness and 
   frazil ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya from satellite imagery, upward 
   looking sonar, and salinity/temperature moorings. J. Geophys. Res., 108: C5, 
   3149, doi:10.1029/2001JC001213.

   Kerman, B., P. Wadhams, D. Norman, J. Comiso. 1999. Informational equivalence 
   between synthetic aperture radar imagery and the thickness of Arctic pack ice. 
   J. Geophys. Res. 104 29,721-29,731.

   Kvambekk, A. S., and T. Vinje. 1992. Upward looking sonar ice draft series 
   from the Greenland Sea. In Report of the Sea Ice Thickness Workshop (A.S. 
   Thorndike, C. Parkinson, and D.A. Rothrock, eds.), Polar Science Center, 
   University of Washington, Seattle, WA, B25-B28.

   LeShack, L. A., W. D. Hibler III, and F. H. Morse. 1971. Automatic processing 
   of Arctic pack ice data obtained by means of submarine sonar and other remote 
   sensing techniques, in Propagation Limitations in Remote Sensing, (J.B. Lomax, 
   ed.), AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 90, NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace 
   Research and Development.

   Lyon, W. K. 1984. Submarine exploration of the North Pole region; history 
   problems, positioning and piloting. J. of Navigation 37 (2): 155-179.

   McLaren, A. S., P. Wadhams, and R. Weintraub. 1984. The sea ice topography of 
   M'Clure Strait in winter and summer of 1960 from submarine profiles. Arctic 
   37: 110-120.

   McLaren, A. S., 1988. Analysis of the under-ice topography in the arctic basin 
   as recorded by the USS Nautilus during August 1958. Arctic 41 (2): 117-126.

   McLaren, A. S., 1989. The under-ice thickness of the Arctic Basin as recorded 
   in 1958 and 1970, J. Geophys. Res. 94: 4971-4983.

   McLaren, A. S., R. G. Barry, and R.H. Bourke, 1990. Could Arctic ice be 
   thinning? Nature 345: 762.

   McLaren, A. S., J. E. Walsh, R. H. Bourke, R. L. Weaver, and W. Wittmann. 
   1992. Variability in sea-ice thickness over the North Pole from 1977 to 1990. 
   Nature, 358: 224-226.

   McLaren, A. S., R. H. Bourke, J. E. Walsh, and R. L. Weaver. 1994. Variability 
   in Sea-Ice Thickness Over the North Pole From 1958 to 1992. The Polar Oceans 
   and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, pp. 363-371, The American 
   Geophysical Union.

   Melling, H., and D. A. Riedel. 1996. Development of seasonal pack ice in the 
   Beaufort Sea during the winter of 1991-1992: A view from below. J. Geophys. 
   Res. 101 (C5): 11,975-11,991.

   Moritz, R. E. 1992. Sampling the temporal variability of sea ice draft 
   distribution. Report of the Sea Ice Thickness Workshop (A.S. Thorndike, C. 
   Parkinson, and D.A. Rothrock, eds.), Polar Science Center, University of 
   Washington, Seattle, WA, B29-B38.

   Rothrock, D. A., Y. Yu and G. A. Maykut, 1999. Thinning of the Arctic Sea-Ice 
   Cover. Geophys. Res. Let. 26 (23): 3469.

   Rothrock, D. A., J. Zhang, and Y. Yu. 2003. The arctic ice thickness anomaly 
   of the 1990s: A sonsistent view from observations and models. J. Geophys. Res. 
   108(C3): 3083. doi:10.1029/2001JC001208.

   Thorndike, A. S., C. Parkinson, and D.A. Rothrock (eds.). 1992. Report of the 
   Sea Ice Thickness Workshop. Polar Science Center, University of Washington, 
   Seattle, WA, 41pp + App.

   Tucker, W. B. III, and W. D. Hibler III. 1986. Variability of Arctic sea ice 
   drafts. Proc. of Second Workshop on Ice Penetration Technology, CRREL Special 
   Rpt. 86-30, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 
   Hanover, NH, 237-256.

   Tucker, W. B. III, R. Anderson, J. Newton, C. Wales, G. Newton, and T. 
   Luallin. 1992. Accuracy of submarine ice draft measurements. Report of the Sea 
   Ice Thickness Workshop (A.S. Thorndike, C. Parkinson, and D.A. Rothrock, 
   eds.), Polar Science Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, B22-B24.

   Tucker, W. B. III, J. W. Weatherly, D. T. Eppler, D. Farmer and D. L. Bentley. 
   2001. Evidence for the rapid thinning of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean 
   at the end of the 1980s. Geophys. Res. Let.28 (14): 2851-2854.

   Wadhams, P., and R. J. Horne. 1980. An analysis of ice profiles obtained by 
   submarine in the Beaufort Sea. J. Glaciol. 25: 401-424.

   Wadhams, P. 1981. Sea-ice topography of the Arctic Ocean in the region 70°W to 
   25°E. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (302): 45-85.

   Wadhams, P. 1984. Arctic sea ice morphology and its measurement, In Arctic 
   Technology and Policy (I.Dyer and C. Chryssostomidis, eds.) Washington, DC, 
   Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 179-195.

   Wadhams, P., A. S. McLaren, and R. Weintraub. 1985. Ice thickness distribution 
   in Davis Strait from submarine profiles. J. Geophys. Res. 90: 1069-1077.

   Wadhams, P., and T. Davy. 1986. On the spacing and draught distributions for 
   pressure ridge keels. J. Geophys. Res. 91: 10,697-10,708.

   Wadhams, P. 1990. Evidence for thinning of the Arctic ice cover north of 
   Greenland. Nature 345: 795-797.

   Wadhams, P., N. R. Davis, J. C. Comiso, R. Kutz, J. Crawford, G. Jackson, W. 
   Krabill, C. B. Sear, R. Swift and W. B. Tucker. 1991. Concurrent remote 
   sensing of arctic sea ice from submarine & aircraft. Intnl. J. Remote Sensing 
   12 (9): 1829-1840.

   Wadhams, P. 1992. Sea ice thickness distribution in the Greenland Sea and 
   Eurasian Basin, May 1987. J. Geophys. Res. 97: 5331-5348.

   Wadhams, P., W. B. Tucker III, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, J. C. Comiso, and 
   N. R. Davis. 1992. Relationship between sea ice freeboard and draft in the 
   Arctic Basin and implications for ice thickness monitoring. J. Geophys. Res. 
   97: 20,325-20,334.

   Wadhams, P. and N. R. Davis. 1994. The fractal properties of the underside of 
   sea ice. Marine, Offshore and Ice Technology (Murthy, Wilson and Wadhams, 
   eds.),. Fifth International Conference on Computer Aided Design, Manufacture 
   and Operation in the marine and Offshore Industries, Incorporating the Fourth 
   Ice Technology Workshop. Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton & 
   Boston: 353-363.

   Wadhams, P., 1995. Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 
   Lond. A 352: 301-319.

   Wadhams, P., 1997. Ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean: the statistical 
   reliability of experimental data. J. Geophys. Res. 102: 27,951-27,959.

   Wadhams, P., and N. R. Davis. 2000. Further evidence of ice thinning in the 
   Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 27 (24): 3973-3975

   Wadhams, P., and R. J. Horne. 1978. An analysis of ice profiles obtained by 
   submarine sonar in the AIDJEX area of the Beafort Sea. Scott Polar Research 
   Institute Technical Report 78-1. Cambridge: SPRI.

   Walsh, J. E., R. S. Weaver, R. Colony, A. S. McLaren, and R. H. Bourke. 1995. 
   Correlation of ice thickness variability to atmospheric circulation over the 
   North Pole 1958-1992. Proc. of Fourth Conf. on Polar Meteorol

   Wensnahan, W., D. Rothrock, and P. Hezel. 2007. New Arctic sea ice draft data 
   from submarines. EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 88 (5), 
   doi:10.1029/2007EO050003.

   Williams, E., C. Swithinbank, and G. de Q. Robin. 1975. A submarine study of 
   Arctic pack ice. Glaciol. 73: 349-362.

   Williams, M. D. 1998. Submarines under ice: the U.S. Navy's polar operations. 
   Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, xii, 223.

   Winsor, P. 2001. Arctic sea ice thickness remained constant during the 1990s. 
   Geophysical Research Letters 28 (6): 1039-1041.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by 
   submarines in the Arctic Ocean.  It includes data from both U.S. Navy and 
   Royal Navy submarines. Maps showing submarine tracks are  available.  Data are 
   provided as ice draft profiles and as statistics derived from the profile 
   data. Statistics files include information concerning ice draft 
   characteristics, keels, level ice, leads, un- deformed and deformed ice.  Data 
   from the U.S. Navy's Digital Ice Profiling System (DIPS) have been  
   interpolated and processed for release as unclassified data at the U.S. Army's 
   Cold Regions Research  and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, New 
   Hampshire. Data from the analog draft recording  system were digitized and 
   then processed by the Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory,  
   University of Washington.   Data from British submarines were provided by the 
   Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of 
   Cambridge. All data sources used similar processing methods in order to ensure 
    a consistent data set. 

   Access to the Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and 
   Statistics data set is  unrestricted, but users are encouraged to register for 
   the data. Registered users will receive e-mail notification about any product 
   changes.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice/
   Description: Sea Ice Products at NSIDC
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NOAA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2015-08-31
DIF_Revision_History: Updated temporal coverage and added references. No QC needed.