Entry_ID: NSIDC-0283
Entry_Title: AWS Data: Characteristics of Snow Megadunes and Their Potential Effect on Ice Core Interpretation
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Mark Fahnestock
   Dataset_Title: AWS Data: Characteristics of Snow Megadunes and Their Potential Effect on Ice Core Interpretation
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2006-10-05
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0283.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5K935F3
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mark
   Last_Name: Fahnestock
   Email: mark.fahnestock@unh.edu
   Phone: 1 603 862-0322 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address:  University of New Hampshire
      Address: Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space
      Address: University of New Hampshire
      Address: 39 College Road
      City: Durham
      Province_or_State: NH
      Postal_Code: 03824-3525
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Ted
   Last_Name: Scambos
   Email: scambos@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES,  449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Terry
   Last_Name: Haran
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES,  449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Rob
   Last_Name: Bauer
   Email: bauerr@kryos.colorado.edu
   Phone: 1 303 492 2378 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: CIRES 449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Pressure
   Variable_Level_1: Atmospheric Pressure Measurements
   Detailed_Variable: Barometric Pressure
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Temperature
   Variable_Level_1: Air Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Temperature
   Variable_Level_1: Surface Air Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Winds
   Variable_Level_1: Surface Winds
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Winds
   Variable_Level_1: Wind Profiles
   Detailed_Variable: Wind Direction
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Winds
   Variable_Level_1: Wind Profiles
   Detailed_Variable: Wind Speed
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Glaciers/Ice Sheets
   Variable_Level_1: Firn
   Detailed_Variable: Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow/Ice Temperature
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: AGDC
Keyword: Air Temperatures
Keyword: Antarctic
Keyword: Antarctica
Keyword: Atmospheric Pressure
Keyword: Automated Weather Stations
Keyword: AWS
Keyword: East  Antarctic Plateau
Keyword: Firn Temperature Measurements
Keyword: Megadunes
Keyword: Polar Firn Air
Keyword: Surface Temperatures
Keyword: Wind Direction
Keyword: Wind Speed
Sensor_Name: ANEMOMETERS
Sensor_Name: ARGOS > ARGOS Data Collection and Position Location System
Sensor_Name: PRESSURE SENSORS
Sensor_Name: THERMOMETERS
Sensor_Name: WIND PROFILERS
Source_Name: WEATHER STATIONS
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 2004-01-16
   Stop_Date: 2004-11-17
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -80.79008
   Northernmost_Latitude: -80.77546
   Westernmost_Longitude: 124.4345
   Easternmost_Longitude: 124.52668
   Maximum_Altitude: 2884 meters
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ANTARCTICA
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Temporal_Resolution: 00:10:00
End_Group
Group: Quality

   The 10 meter firn temperature reading did not work much of the time at the Zoe 
   site (mostly not a number (NAN) values). Not all ARGOS satellite passes caught 
   both a Block 1 and a Block 2 corresponding to the same set of measurements, so 
   they are not coincident measurements unless their julian day values match to 
   within about 0.007 days (about 10 minutes). There are a few spurious points 
   because of the communication link: sometimes the data logger and satellite 
   transmitter would get out of sync, and values ended up in the wrong columns, 
   etc. Investigators filtered out the obvious spurious values, but a few still 
   exist in the data.

   Investigators estimated the wind direction margin of error at the Mac site to 
   be ±1 degree clockwise from true north with no measurable offset. They 
   estimated wind direction margin of error at the Zoe site to be ± 4 degrees 
   clockwise from true north, but believe the measurements appeared to be 
   approximately 4 degrees too high.

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: AGDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: AGDC > Antarctic Glaciological Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/agdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: AGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 1.48 MB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Multimedia_Sample
   File: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/agdc/nsidc0283_fahnestock/dunes_area_location.jpg
   Caption: Site Location
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Albert, M. R., C. A. Shuman, Z. R. Courville, R. Bauer, M. A. Fahnestock, and 
   T. A. Scambos. 2004. Extreme firn metamorphism: impact of decades of vapor 
   transport on near-surface firn at a low-accumulation glazed site on the East 
   Antarctic Plateau. Annals of Glaciology 39: 73-78.

   Campbell Scientific, Inc. 2002. CR10X Measurement and Control Module 
   Operator's Manual.

   Courville, Z. R., M. R. Albert, and J. Severinghaus. 2002. Firn physical 
   characteristics and impact on interstitial convection and diffusion in the 
   megadunes of East Antarctica. Eos. Trans. AGU 85(47). Fall Meeting Suppl., 
   Abstract C31C-06.

    Courville, Z. R., M. R. Albert, M. A. Fahnestock, and L. Cathles. 2005. 
   Impact of accumulation rate on firn properties. Eos. Trans. AGU 86(52). Fall 
   Meeting Suppl., Abstract C21B-1108.

   Courville, Z. R., M. Albert, M. Fahnestock, L. M. Cathles. 2006. Impact of 
   accumulation hiatus on the physical properties of firn at a low accumulation 
   site. Journal of Geophysical Research. In review.

    Fahnestock, M. A., T. A. Scambos, C. A. Shuman, et. al. 2000. Snow megadune 
   fields on the East Antarctic Plateau: extreme atmosphere-ice interaction. 
   Geophysical Research Letters 27(22): 3719-3722.

   Fahnestock, M. A., C. A. Shuman, M. R. Albert, and T. A. Scambos. 2002. 
   Satellite, observational, meteorological and thermal records from two sites in 
   the Antarctic megadunes stability of atmospheric forcing, thermal cracking, 
   and the seasonal evolution of the thermal profile. Eos. Trans. AGU 85(47). 
   Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract C31C-03.

   Fahnestock, M. A., C. A. Shuman, T. A. Scambos, M. R. Albert, T. Haran, Z. R. 
   Courville, and R. Bauer. 2005. Mapping Antarctic megadunes and other 
   accumulation-related features on the East Antarctic Plateau. Eos. Trans. AGU 
   86(52). Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract C13A-06.

   Frezzotti, M., S. Gandolfi, F. La Marca, and S. Urbini. 2002. Snow dunes and 
   glazed surfaces in Antarctica: new field and remote sensing data. Annals of 
   Glaciology 34: 81-88.

   Frezzotti, M., S. Gandolfi, and S. Urbini. 2002. Snow megadunes in Antarctica: 
   sedimentary structure and genesis. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(D18), 
   4344: doi:10.1029/2001JD000673.

   Kawamura, K., and J. P. Severinghaus. 2005. Krypton and Xenon as indicators of 
   convective zone thickness in firn at Megadunes, Antarctica. Eos. Trans. AGU 
   86(52). Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract PP33C-1590.

    Scambos, T. A., M. A. Fahnestock, C. A. Shuman, and R. Bauer. 2002. Antarctic 
   megadunes: characteristics and formation. Eos. Trans. AGU 85(47). Fall Meeting 
   Suppl., Abstract C31C-04.

   Suchdeo, V. P., C. A. Shuman, T. A. Scambos, M. A. Fahnestock, M. R. Albert, 
   and R. Bauer. 2002. Precise elevation profiles across Antarctic megadunes. 
   Eos. Trans. AGU 85(47). Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract C33C-0357.

   Suwa, M., and J. Severinghaus. 2002. Firn density profile at Megadunes, East 
   Antarctica, calls for an improved densification model for low accumulation 
   sites. Eos. Trans. AGU 85(47). Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract C33C-0359.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The Antarctic megadune research was conducted during two field seasons, one in 
   November 2002 and the other during the period of December 2003 through January 
   2004. The megadune field site is located on the East Antarctic Plateau, 
   southeast of Vostok station. The objectives of this multi-facetted research 
   are 1) to determine the physical characteristics of the firn across the dunes 
   including typical climate indicators such as stable isotopes and major 
   chemical species and 2) to install instruments to measure the time variation 
   of near-surface wind and temperature with depth, to test and refine hypotheses 
   for megadune formation. It is important to improve our current understanding 
   of the megadunes because of their extreme nature, their broad extent, and 
   their potential impact on the climate record. Megadunes are a manifestation of 
   an extreme terrestrial climate and may provide insight on the past terrestrial 
   climate or on processes active on other planets.

   Snow megadunes are undulating variations in accumulation and surface texture 
   with wavelengths of 2 to 5 km and amplitudes up to 5 meters. The features 
   cover 500,000 km2 of the East Antarctic plateau, occurring in areas 
   of moderate regional slope and low accumulation on the flanks of the ice sheet 
   between 2500 and 3800 meters elevation. Landsat images and aerial photography 
   indicate the dunes consist of alternating surfaces of glaze and rough 
   sastrugi, with gradational boundaries. This pattern is oriented perpendicular 
   to the mean wind direction, as modeled in katabatic wind studies. Glazed 
   surfaces cover the leeward faces and troughs; rough sastrugi cover the 
   windward faces and crests.  The megadune pattern is crossed by smooth to 
   eroded wind-parallel longitudinal dunes. Wind-eroded longitudinal dunes form 
   spectacular 1-meter-high sastrugi in nearby areas.

   This data set contains automated weather station (AWS) data from two sites. 
   The Mac site was oriented on the rough sastrugi-covered windward face and the 
   Zoe site was on the glazed leeward face. The AWSs collected data throughout 
   the year from 16 January 2004 to 17 November 2004. Investigators received data 
   from the two field sites via the ARGOS Satellite System 
   (http://www.argosinc.com/). Data are provided in space-delimited ASCII text 
   format and are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/antarctica/megadunes/
   Description: Antarctic Megadunes: Research at the Edge of the Earth
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0282.html
   Group: Description

      GPS and GPR Data: Characteristics of Snow Megadunes and Their Potential Effect 
      on Ice Core Interpretation

   End_Group
End_Group
IDN_Node: AMD/US
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2006-10-05
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-03-14
DIF_Revision_History: Removed USADCC logo for Search cleanup.