Entry_ID: NSIDC-0079
Entry_Title: Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Comiso, J. C. 
   Dataset_Title: Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2000-02-01updated 2014
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Version: 2
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0079.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Josephino 'Joey'
   Middle_Name: C.
   Last_Name: Comiso
   Email: josefino.c.comiso@nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5708 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: Cryospheric Sciences Branch
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 614
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Antarctic
Keyword: Arctic
Keyword: Bootstrap Algorithm
Keyword: BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURES
Keyword: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Keyword: DMSP
Keyword: NIMBUS-7
Keyword: Sea Ice Concentration
Keyword: SMMR
Keyword: SSM/I
Keyword: SSMIS
Keyword: Time Series
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Sensor_Name: SSMIS > Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F11 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F11
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F13 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F8 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F8
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-3/F17 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1978-10-26
   Stop_Date: 2013-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -90
   Northernmost_Latitude: -39
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 30
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ANTARCTICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: CANADA
   Location_Subregion2: HUDSON BAY
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: BARENTS SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion2: DAVIS STRAIGHT
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion2: GULF OF ST LAWRENCE
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: INDIAN OCEAN
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: PACIFIC OCEAN
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: PACIFIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion2: BERING SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: PACIFIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion2: SEA OF OKHOTSK
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: SOUTHERN OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: BELLINGSHAUSEN SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: SOUTHERN OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: ROSS SEA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: SOUTHERN OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: WEDDELL SEA
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 mon
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 day
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Group: Quality

   Although most bad data are easily identifiable and removed with little 
   ambiguity, human judgments must be made and applied consistently to the time 
   series data. While efforts were made to minimize errors in judgment and 
   inconsistencies, the resulting data set is not perfect. Nevertheless, the data 
   provider feels that these maps are suitable for some types of research 
   studies, such as basin-scale trend analysis, model inputs, and some regional 
   studies. They are less useful in evaluating conditions on a specific day in a 
   localized region. 

   NSIDC staff visually checked the entire set of data files, including file 
   structure, comparisons to existing SMMR- and SSM/I-derived sea ice 
   concentration grids, and information files and examination of data quality. 
   Please note that in this document, a large fraction of the text was supplied 
   by the data set provider. It may include qualitative judgments and statements 
   by the provider and does not necessarily represent endorsements or imply that 
   independent assessments have been performed by NSIDC staff.

   Limitations of the Data

   Basic limitations arise from the sensor resolution, temporal coverage, and 
   algorithm assumptions and characteristics. Users should review the information 
   provided on fields of view, temporal sampling, and algorithm characteristics. 
   Particular care is needed in interpreting the sea ice concentrations during 
   summer when melt is underway and in regions where new sea ice makes up a 
   substantial part of the sea ice cover. As noted, some residual errors remain 
   due to sensor differences and to weather effects along with mixing of ocean 
   and land area within the sensor field of view. 

   No data coverage is available for regions poleward of 81° N for SMMR and 87° N 
   for SSM/I due to the inclination of the orbits. SMMR data were acquired every 
   other day, while SSM/I data are acquired daily.

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: NSIDC_DAAC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 205 KB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 266 KB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Cho, K., N. Sasaki, H. Shimoda, T. Sakata, and F. Nishio. 1996. Evaluation and 
   Improvement of SSM/I Sea Ice Concentration Algorithms for the Sea of Okhotsk. 
   Journal Remote Sensing of Japan 16(2):47-58.

   Comiso, J. C., and F. Nishio. 2008. Trends in the Sea Ice Cover Using Enhanced 
   and Compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR Data. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   113, C02S07, doi:10.1029/2007JC0043257. 

   Comiso, J. C., D. Cavalieri, C. Parkinson, and P. Gloersen. 1997. Passive 
   Microwave Algorithms for Sea Ice Concentrations: A Comparison of Two 
   Techniques. Remote Sensing of the Environment 60(3):357-84.  Comiso, J. C., 
   and R. Kwok. 1996. The Summer Arctic Sea Ice Cover from Satelli Observations. 
   Journal of Geophysical Research 101(C2):28,397-416.

   Comiso, J. C. 1995. SSM/I Concentrations Using the Bootstrap Algorithm. NASA 
   Reference Publication 1380. 40 pages.

   Comiso, J. C, T. C. Grenfell, M. Lange, A. Lohanick, R. Moore, and P. Wadhams. 
   1992. Microwave Remote Sensing of the Southern Ocean Ice Cover. Microwave 
   Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, ed. Frank Carsey. Washington D.C.: American 
   Geophysical Union. 243-59.

   Comiso, J. C. and C. W. Sullivan. 1986. Satellite Microwave and In-Situ 
   Observations of the Weddell Sea ice Cover and its Marginal Ice Zone. Journal 
   of Geophysical Research 91(C8):9,663-81.

   Comiso, J. C. 1984. Characteristics of Winter Sea Ice from Satellite 
   Multispectral Microwave Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   91(C1):975-94.

   Comiso, J. C., S. F. Ackley, and A. L. Gordon. 1984. Antarctic Sea Ice 
   Microwave Signature and Their Correlation with In-Situ Ice Observations. 
   Journal of Geophysical Research 89(C1):662-72.

   Gloersen P., W. Campbell, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, C. Parkinson, H. J. Zwally. 
   1992. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive Microwave 
   Observations and Analysis. NASA Special Publication 511.

   Maslanik, J. A. 1992. Effects of Weather on the Retrieval of Sea Ice 
   Concentration and Ice Type from Passive Microwave Data. International Journal 
   of Remote Sensing 13(1):37-54.

   National Snow and Ice Data Center. 1992. DMSP SSM/I Brightness Temperature and 
   Sea Ice Concentration Grids for the Polar Regions on CD-ROM - User's Guide. 
   NSIDC Special Report - 1. 222 pp.

   Parkinson, C. L., D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H. J. Zwally, and J. C. 
   Comiso, 1999. Arctic Sea Ice Extents, Areas, and Trends, 1978-1996. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 104(C9), 20,837-20,856. 

   Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, 
   and W. J. Campbell. 1987. Arctic Sea Ice 1973-1976 from Satellite Passive 
   Microwave Observations. NASA Special Publication 489.

   Pearson, F. 1990. Map Projections: Theory and Applications. Boca Raton, FL:CRC 
   Press. 372 pages.

   Snyder, J. P. 1987. Map Projections - A Working Manual. U.S. Geological Survey 
   Professional Paper 1395. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Government Printing Office. 383 
   pages.

   Snyder, J. P. 1982. Map Projections used by the U.S. Geological Survey. U.S. 
   Geological Survey Bulletin 1532.

   Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, W. J. Campbell, F. D. Carsey, 
   and P. Gloersen. 1983. Antarctic Sea Ice 1973-1976 from Satellite Passive 
   Microwave Observations. NASA Special Publication 459.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This sea ice concentration data set was derived using measurements from the 
   Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite 
   and from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensors on the Defense 
   Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) -F8, -F11, and -F13 satellites. 
   Measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) aboard 
   DMSP-F17 are also included. The data set has been generated using the Advanced 
   Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Bootstrap 
   Algorithm with daily varying tie-points. Daily (every other day prior to July 
   1987) and monthly data are available for both the north and south polar 
   regions. Data are gridded on the SSM/I polar stereographic grid (25 x 25 km) 
   and provided in two-byte integer format. Data are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice/
   Description: Sea Ice Data at NSIDC
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://polynya.gsfc.nasa.gov/seaice_datasets.html
   Description: Sea Ice Remote Sensing (GSFC)
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/atlas/
   Description: Atlas of the Cryosphere
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0001.html
   Description: DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0051.html
   Description: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I Passive Microwave Data
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0192.html
   Description: Sea Ice Trends and Climatologies from SMMR and SSM/I
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2000-02-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-05-28
DIF_Revision_History:  Minor update to data end date; no QC needed.