Entry_ID: NSIDC-0072
Entry_Title: Adjusted Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall and Rainfall for Canada (1874-1990)
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: P. Groisman
   Dataset_Title: Adjusted Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall and Rainfall for Canada (1874-1990)
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2000-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Asheville, North Carolina USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NCDC: National Climatic Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0072.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Pavel
   Middle_Name: YA.
   Last_Name: Groisman
   Email: pgroisman@ncdc.noaa.gov
   Phone: 1 704 271-4307 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Climatic Data Center
      Address: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      City: Asheville
      Province_or_State: NC
      Postal_Code: 28801
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mark
   Middle_Name: C.
   Last_Name: Serreze
   Email: serreze@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Precipitation
   Variable_Level_1: Precipitation Amount
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Precipitation
   Variable_Level_1: Precipitation Rate
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Precipitation
   Variable_Level_1: Rain
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Precipitation
   Variable_Level_1: Snow
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Snow Cover
End_Group
Keyword: Adjusted Data
Keyword: Canada
Keyword: Canadian Arctic
Keyword: Corrected Data
Keyword: Evaporation Loss
Keyword: Ground Stations
Keyword: Instrumental Inhomogeneities
Keyword: Mean Monthly Precipitation
Keyword: Mean Monthly Rainfall
Keyword: MEAN MONTHLY SNOWFALL
Keyword: Nipher Rain Gauge
Keyword: Nipher Snow Gauge
Keyword: NOAA
Keyword: Rainfall Adjustment
Keyword: Snowfall Adjustment
Keyword: Snow Ruler
Keyword: Station Data
Keyword: Trace Precipitation
Keyword: Wetting Loss
Keyword: Wind-induced Undercatch
Sensor_Name: RAIN GAUGES
Sensor_Name: SNOW MEASURING ROD
Source_Name: GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Source_Name: GROUND STATIONS
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1874-01-01
   Stop_Date: 1990-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 41
   Northernmost_Latitude: 84
   Westernmost_Longitude: -141
   Easternmost_Longitude: -52
   Minimum_Altitude: 0 meters
   Maximum_Altitude: 2517 meters
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: NORTH AMERICA
   Location_Subregion1: CANADA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 45 MB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Goodison, B.E. 1978. Accuracy of Canadian snow gauge measurements. Journal of 
   Applied Meteorology 17:1542-1548.

   Groisman, P.Ya. D.R. Easterling. 1994. Variability and trends of precipitation 
   and snowfall over the United States and Canada.  Journal of Climate 7:184-205.

   Karl, T.R., Quayle, R.G., Groisman, P.Ya. 1993.  Detecting climate variations 
   and change: New challenges for observing and data management systems. Journal 
   of Climate 6:1481-1494.

    Metcalfe, J.R., B. Routledge, K. Devine. 1997. Rainfall measurement in 
   Canada: Changing observational methods and archive adjustment procedures. 
   Journal of Climate 10:92-101.

   Akima, H., 1978. A method of bivariate interpolation and smooth  surface 
   fitting for irregularly distributed data points. ACM Transactions on 
   Mathematical Software 4:148-159.

   Bradley, R.S., J. England Jr. 1978. Recent climatic fluctuations of the 
   Canadian high Arctic and their significance for glaciology.  Arctic Alpine 
   Research 10:715-731.

   Bruce, J.P., R.H. Clark. 1966. Introduction to Hydrometeorology,  319 pp., 
   Permagon Press, Oxford.

   Currie, B.W., 1947. Water content of snow in cold climates.   Bulletin of the 
   American Meteorological Society 28:150-151.

   Ferguson, H.L., D.M. Pollock. 1971. Estimating snowpack accumulation for 
   runoff prediction. Canadian Hydrology Symposium No.8: Runoff  from Snow and 
   Ice. Inland Water Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines  and Resources, Quebec City. 
   7-27.

   Golubev, V.S., 1993. Experience of correction of precipitation point 
   measurements and analysis of correction procedures. AMS Proceedings: Eighth 
   Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation Anaheim, CA. 
   325-328.

   Golubev, V.S., V.V. Koknaeva, A.Yu. Simonenko. 1995. Results of atmospheric 
   precipitation measurements by national standard gauges  of Canada, USA, and 
   Russia. Meteorologia i Gidrologia 2:102-110.  (in Russian)

   Goodison, B.E., H.L. Ferguson, G.A. McKay. 1981. Comparison of  point snowfall 
   measurement techniques. In: D.M.Gray and D.M.   Male (Eds). 'Handbook on Snow: 
   Principles, processes, management  and use. Pergamon Press, p. 200-210.

   Goodison, B.E., P.Y.T. Louie. 1986. Canadian methods for precipitation  
   measurement and correction. WMO/TD-No. 104.  Instruments and observing 
   methods. Report No. 25. Papers presented at the Workshop on the Correct ion of 
   Precipitation Measurements, Zurich, Switzerland, 1-3 April, 1985, 141-145.

   Goodison, B.E., J.R. Metcalfe. 1989. Canadian participation in the  WMO Solid 
   Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison: preliminary results. WMO/IAHS/ETH 
   International Workshop on precipitation Measurement, St.-Mor itz, Switzerland, 
   3-7 December, 1989, 121-125.

   Goodison, B.E., P.Y.T. Louie and D. Yang. 1998. WMO solid precipitation 
   measurement intercomparison, final report, 212 pp.  World Meteorlogical 
   Organization, Geneva.

   Groisman, P.Y., V.V. Koknaeva, T.A. Belokrylova, and T.R. Karl. 1991. 
   Overcoming biases of precipitation measurement: A history of the USSR 
   experience, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 72 (11): 1725-1733.

   Groisman, P.Ya., R.W. Knight, T.R. Karl, R.R. Heim Jr. 1993. Inferences of the 
   North American snowfall and snow cover with recent global temperature changes. 
   Proceedings of 'Snow Watch '92' Conference, Niagara-on the-Lake, Canada, March 
   30 - April 1, 1992, 44-51.

    Groisman, P.Ya., T.R. Karl. R.W. Knight, G.L. Stenchikov. 1994.  Changes of 
   snow cover, temperature, and radiative heat balance over the Northern 
   Hemisphere. Journal of Climate 7:1633-1656.

   Groisman, P.Ya., D.R. Easterling. 1996. Variability and trends  of 
   precipitation and snowfall over North America. In 'Natural and  Climate 
   Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales', National Academy Press, 67-77.

   Groisman, P.Ya., T.R. Karl, D.R. Easterling, R.W. Knight, P.B. Jamason, K J. 
   Hennessy, R. Suppiah, Ch.M. Page, J. Wibig, K. Fortuniak, V.N. Razuvaev, A. 
   Douglas, E. Forland, P.-M. Zhai. 1999. Changes in the prob ability of heavy 
   precipitation: Important indicators of climatic change. Climatic Change (in 
   press).

   Groisman, P.Y. 1998. National Climatic Data Center Data Documentation for 
   TD-9816, Canadian Monthly Precipitation, pp. 21, National Climatic Data 
   Center, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC.

   Hare, F.K., 1980. Long-term annual surface heat and water balances over Canada 
   and the United States south of 60oN: Reconciliation of precipitation, run-off 
   and temperature fields. Atmosphere-Ocean No.18(2): 127-153.

   Karl, T.R., P.Ya. Groisman, R.W. Knight, R.R. Heim Jr. 1993b.   Recent 
   variations of snow cover and snowfall in North America and  their relation to 
   precipitation and temperature variations. Journal  of Climate 6:1327-1344.

   Kurtyka, J.C., 1953. Precipitation Measurement Study. State of Illinois, 
   Department of Registration and Education, State Water Survey Division , 
   Urbana, Il. Report of Investigation # 20, 178 pp.

   Mekis, E., W.D. Hogg. 1997. Rehabilitation and analysis of  Canadian daily 
   precipitation time series. AMS Proceedings of the  10th conference on applied 
   climatology in Reno, Nevada, October 20-23. 300-304. 

   American Meterology Society, Boston, Mass.  Neff, E.L., 1977. How much rain 
   does a rain gauge gauge?  Journal  of Hydrology 35, 213-220.

   Potter, J.G., 1965. Water content of freshly fallen snow. Department of 
   Transport, Meteorological Branch. Cirular 4232, Technical 569, 12 pp.

   Sanderson, M., 1975. A comparison of Canadian and United States standard 
   methods of measuring precipitation. Journal of Applied Meteorology 14: 
   1197-1199.

   Sevruk B., 1982. Methods of correction for systematic error in point 
   precipitation measurement for operational use. WMO, Operational Hydrology 
   Report Geneva. 21:91p.

   Woo, M.-K., P. Steer. 1979. Measurement of trace rainfall at a high arctic 
   site. Arctic 32:80-84.

   World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1973. Annotated bibliography on 
   precipitation measurement instruments. WMO Geneva, Switzerland 2E 343:278 pp.

   World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 1979. Climatic Atlas of  North and 
   Central America, Vol. 1. WMO UNESCO Geneva, Switzerland,  39 pp.

   World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth, 1974. Gidrometeoizdat, 
   Leningrad, 638 pp. (in Russian; in English published by UNESCO Press in 1978).

   Yang, D., B.E. Goodison, J.R. Metcalfe, V.S. Golubev, E. Elomaa, T. Gunther, 
   R.E. Bates, T.Pangburn, C.L. Hanson, D.  Emerson, V. Copaciu, and J. Mikovic. 
   1995. Accuracy of Tretyakov Precipitation Gauge: Result of WMO 
   Intercomparison, 52nd Eastern Snow Conference pp. 95-106, Toronto, Canada.

   Yang, D. 1999. An improved precipitation climatology for the Arctic Ocean. 
   Geophysical Research Letters 26 (11): 1625-1628.

   Yang, D., S. Ishida, B.E. Goodison, and T. Gunther. 1999. Bias correction of 
   daily precipitation measurements for Greenland.   Journal of Geophysical 
   Research 104 (D6): 6171-6181.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set was distributed by NSIDC until October, 2003, when it was 
   withdrawn from distribution because it duplicates the NOAA National Climatic 
   Data Center (NCDC) data set TD-9816 'Canadian Monthly Precipitation' 
   (Groisman, P.Y. 1998. National Climatic Data Center Data Documentation for 
   TD-9816, Canadian Monthly Precipitation. National Climatic Data Center 151 
   Patton Ave., Asheville, NC. 21 pp.). TD-9816 contains monthly rainfall, 
   snowfall and precipitation (the sum of rainfall and snowfall) values from 
   6,692 stations in Canada. NCDC investigator Pavel Groisman obtained the 
   original data from the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) in the 
   early 1990s and adjusted the measurements to account for inconsistencies and 
   changes in instrumentation over the period of record. TD-9816 contains both 
   the original and adjusted data. Related data are the Historical Adjusted 
   Climate Database for Canada, Version December 2002, and Rehabilitated 
   Precipitation and Homogenized Temperature Data Sets provided by the Climate 
   Monitoring and Data Interpretation Division’s Climate Research Branch, 
   Meteorological Service of Canada. Monthly Rehabilitated Precipitation and 
   Homogenized Temperature Data Sets (updated annually) includes an alternative 
   version of this data set using different correction methods. It is distributed 
   by the Meteorological Service of Canada, who also provides a Microsoft Word 
   document that compares the two different data correction methods.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0072_canadian_precip/comparison.html
   Description: Comparison of Data Correction Methods
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca/hccd/
   Group: Description

      Meteorological Service of Canada: Monthly Rehabilitated Precipitation and 
      Homogenized Temperature Data Sets

   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0059.html
   Description: Former Soviet Union Monthly Precipitation Archive, 1891-1993
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2000-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-09-18
DIF_Revision_History: deleted catalog page URL in Related URLs field