Entry_ID: NSIDC-0063
Entry_Title: Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Zhang, T.
   Dataset_Title: Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1998-01-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0063.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Tingjun
   Middle_Name: Z
   Last_Name: Zhang
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2359 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology
      Address: UCB449
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: Colorado
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Atmosphere
   Term: Atmospheric Temperature
   Variable_Level_1: Air Temperature
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Freeze/Thaw
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Soils
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Freeze/Thaw
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Permafrost
End_Group
Keyword: Air Temperature
Keyword: Cryosphere
Keyword: Degree Days
Keyword: Freeze
Keyword: Frozen Ground
Keyword: Frozen Soil
Keyword: Ice Growth
Keyword: Ice Melt
Keyword: Permafrost
Keyword: Snow Melt
Keyword: Thaw
Sensor_Name: THERMISTORS
Sensor_Name: THERMOMETERS
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -90
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: GLOBAL
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Legates, D. R. and C. J. Willmott, 1990: Mean Seasonal and Spatial Variability 
   in Global Surface Air Temperature, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 41(1-2).

End_Group
Group: Summary

   The total annual freezing and thawing indices are defined as the cumulative 
   number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees 
   Celsius. The total annual freezing index has been widely used to predict 
   permafrost distribution; estimate the maximum thickness of sea, lake, and 
   river ice, and the maximum depth of ground-frost penetration; and classify 
   snow types. The annual total thawing index has been used to predict permafrost 
   distribution and to estimate the maximum depth of thaw in frozen ground. Both 
   total freezing and thawing indices are important parameters for engineering 
   design in cold regions.

   Data coverage is global. The data set contains the total annual freezing and 
   thawing indices with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees latitude by 0.5 
   degrees longitude. Two data files are available, for the freeze and thaw 
   indices respectively, in flat binary format. Each file is approximately 1 MB 
   in size. The total annual freezing and thawing indexes were calculated based 
   upon the monthly mean air temperature by Legates and Willmott (1990).

End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1998-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-07-26
DIF_Revision_History: added creator