Entry_ID: NSIDC-0051
Entry_Title: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. Zwally. 
   Dataset_Title: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data
   Dataset_Release_Date: 1996-01-01updated yearly
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC DAAC: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0051.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Claire
   Middle_Name: L.
   Last_Name: Parkinson
   Email: clairep@neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5715 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 971
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Claire
   Middle_Name: L.
   Last_Name: Parkinson
   Email: clairep@neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5715 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 971
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Per
   Last_Name: Gloersen
   Email: per.gloersen@gsfc.nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5710 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 971
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Per
   Last_Name: Gloersen
   Email: per.gloersen@gsfc.nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5710 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 971
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: H. Jay
   Last_Name: Zwally
   Email: Jay.Zwally@nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5643 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 971
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: H. Jay
   Last_Name: Zwally
   Email: Jay.Zwally@nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5643 
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Code 971
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Donald
   Middle_Name: J.
   Last_Name: Cavalieri
   Email: Donald.J.Cavalieri@nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5901 x
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/GSFC
      Address: Mail Code: 615
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Donald
   Middle_Name: J.
   Last_Name: Cavalieri
   Email: Donald.J.Cavalieri@nasa.gov
   Phone: 1 301 614-5901 x
   Fax: 1 301  614-5644 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      Address: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes
      Address: NASA/GSFC
      Address: Mail Code: 615
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Walt
   Last_Name: Meier
   Email: walter.n.meier@nasa.gov
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: F.
   Last_Name: Fetterer
   Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: CIRES
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: 449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Kenneth
   Last_Name: Knowles
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Matthew
   Last_Name: Savoie
   Email: savoie@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Mary J.
   Last_Name: Brodzik
   Email: brodzik@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
ISO_Topic_Category: Oceans
Keyword: Antarctic
Keyword: Arctic
Keyword: Brightness Temperature
Keyword: DMSP
Keyword: EOSDIS
Keyword: Gridded Data
Keyword: Ice
Keyword: Multiyear Sea Ice Concentration
Keyword: NIMBUS-7
Keyword: NSIDC DAAC
Keyword: Passive Microwave
Keyword: Polar
Keyword: Polar Stereographic
Keyword: Polynyas
Keyword: Remote Sensing
Keyword: Sea Ice
Keyword: Sea Ice Concentration
Keyword: SMMR
Keyword: SSM/I
Keyword: SSMIS
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Sensor_Name: SSMIS > Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F11 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F11
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F13 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F8 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F8
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-3/F17 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1978-10-01
   Stop_Date: 2013-09-30
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: in work
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -90
   Northernmost_Latitude: -39.23
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 30.98
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 mon
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Temporal_Resolution: 1 day
End_Group
Project: EOSDIS > Earth Observing System Data Information System
Project: ESIP > Earth Science Information Partners Program
Group: Quality

   NSIDC staff visually checks the entire set of data files and selected graphics 
   files. This includes checks for proper file structure, comparisons to existing 
   SMMR-, SSM/I-, and SSMIS-derived sea ice concentration grids, masks, and 
   information files, and examination of data quality.

   Some weather-related effects and land contamination are still present. The 
   amount and spatial distribution of those remaining weather effects varies with 
   season. Also, occasional bad scan lines still appear in the data. Based on 
   NSIDC analyses (see NSIDC Special Report 5: An Intercomparison of DMSP F11- 
   and F13-derived Sea Ice Products for summaries of differences among the SSM/I 
   sensors), some sensor-to-sensor differences are likely to remain in these 
   data, particularly for marginal ice zones.

   During May 1986, residual weather effects and processing errors result in 
   large bands of very low ice concentrations over the open ocean in the Weddell, 
   Bellingshausen, and Amundsen seas in the Southern Hemisphere. Although the 
   magnitude of these

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: NSIDC_DAAC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NASA DAAC > NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 102.7 KB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 133.3 KB
   Distribution_Format: Binary
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 300 KB
   Distribution_Format: PNG
End_Group
Group: Reference

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   Ackley, S. F. 1979. Mass Balance Aspects of Weddell Sea Pack Ice. Journal of 
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   Ackley, S. F., A. J. Gow, K. R. Buck, and K. M. Golden. 1980. Sea Ice Studies 
   in the Weddell Sea Aboard USCGC Polar Sea. Antarctic Journal of U. S. 
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   Bonbright, D. I. 1984. PODS SSM/I Functional Requirements (Version 1.0). Jet 
   Propulsion Laboratory Document 715-63.

   Bonbright, D. I., J. W. Brown, J. E. Hilland, I. T. Hsu, J. A. Johnson, T. L. 
   Kotlarek, R. A. Lassanyi, C. L. Miller, C. S. Morris, and F. J. Salamone. 
   1987. NASA Ocean Data System Version 3.0. User handbook. Jet Propulsion 
   Laboratory. Document 715-66, 50 pp.

   Campbell, W. J. 1973. NASA remote sensing of sea ice in AIDJEX. Proceedings of 
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   Campbell, W. J., P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally. 1994. Short- and Long-term 
   Temporal Behavior of Polar Sea-Ice Covers from Satellite Passive-Microwave 
   Observations. Geophysical Monograph 85. Editors O. M. Johannessen, R. D. 
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   Campbell, W. J., P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally. 1984. Aspects of Arctic Sea 
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   Hemisphere Publishing, New York, 197-222.

   Campbell, W. J., P. Gloersen, and R. O. Ramseier. 1975. Synoptic Ice Dynamics 
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   Science 278(5340): 1104-1106. Cavalieri, D. J. and S. Martin. 1994. The 
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   Cavalieri, D. J., S. Martin, and P. Gloersen. 1983. Nimbus-7 SMMR Observations 
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   Cavalieri, D. J., K. M. St. Germain, and C. T. Swift. 1995. Reduction of 
   Weather Effects in the Calculation of Sea Ice Concentration with the DMSP 
   SSM/I. Journal of Glaciology. 41(139):455-464. Cavalieri, D. J., J. Crawford, 
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   Cavalieri, D. J., J. Crawford, M. R. Drinkwater, D. Eppler, L. D. Farmer, R. 
   R. Jentz and C. C. Wackerman. 1991. Aircraft Active and Passive Microwave 
   Validation of Sea Ice Concentration from the DMSP SSM/I. Journal of 
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   over the Cosmonaut Sea and the Maud Rise. Journal of Geophysical Research 
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   Observations of the Weddell Sea Ice Cover and its Marginal Ice Zone. Journal 
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   Comiso, J. C., and H. J. Zwally. 1989. Polar Microwave Brightness Temperatures 
   from Nimbus-7 SMMR, NASA RP-1223, 82 pages.

   Comiso, J. C., and H. J. Zwally. 1984. Concentration Gradients and 
   Growth/Decay Characteristics of the Seasonal Sea Ice Cover. Journal of 
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   Comiso, J. C., and H. J. Zwally. 1982. Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations 
   Inferred from Nimbus-5 ESMR and Landsat Imagery. Journal of Geophysical 
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   Comiso, J. C., S. F. Ackley, and A. l. Gordon. 1984. Antarctic Sea Ice 
   Microwave Signatures and their Correlation with In-Situ Ice Observations. 
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   D. Bell, M. Lange, and S. Ackley. 1989. Passive Microwave In-Situ Observations 
   of Weddell Sea Ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 88(C12):7686-7704.

   Comiso, J. C., T. C. Grenfell, M. Lange, A. Lohanick, R. Moore, and P. 
   Wadhams. 1992. Microwave Remote Sensing of the Southern Ocean Ice Cover. 
   Chapt. 12 In: Microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Frank Carsey, editor. 
   American Geophysical Union. Washington, D. C. 243-259. Comiso, J. C., and K. 
   Steffen. 2001. Studies of Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Satellite Data 
   and their Applications. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(12): 31,361-31,385.

   Comiso, J. C., P. Wadhams, W. Krabill, R. Swift, J. Crawford, and W. Tucker. 
   1991. Top/Bottom Multisensor Remote Sensing of Arctic Sea Ice. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 96(C2):2693-2711.

   Emery, W. J., C. Fowler, J. A. Maslanik. 1994. Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations 
   from SSM/I and AVHRR Satellite Data. Journal of Geophysical Research 
   99(C9):18,329-18,342.

   Eppler, D. T., L. D. Farmer, A. W. Lohanick, M. A. Anderson, D. J. Cavalieri, 
   J. C. Comiso, P. Gloersen, C. Garrity, T. C. Grenfell, M. Hallikainen, J. A. 
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   Gloersen, P. 1983. Calibration of the Nimbus-7 SMMR: II Polarization Mixing 
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   EngineeringOE-2:172-178.

   Gloersen, P., and W. J. Campbell. 1991a. Variations of Extent, Area, and Open 
   Water of the Polar Sea Ice Covers: 1978-1987, Proc. of the Int. Conf. on the 
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   B. Severin, eds., Geophysical Institute, University of Fairbanks, Alaska. 778 
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   Gloersen, P., and W. J. Campbell. 1991b. Recent Variations in Arctic and 
   Antarctic Sea Ice Covers. Nature 352:33-36.

   Gloersen, P., and W. J. Campbell. 1988a. Variations in the Arctic, Antarctic, 
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   Gloersen, P. and W. J. Campbell. 1988b. Satellite and Aircraft 
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   Gloersen P. and D. J. Cavalieri. 1986. Reduction of Weather Effects in the 
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End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set is generated from brightness temperature data derived from the 
   following sensors: the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer 
   (SMMR), the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) -F8, -F11 and -F13 
   Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSM/Is), and the DMSP-F17 Special Sensor 
   Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). The data are provided in the polar 
   stereographic projection at a grid cell size of 25 x 25 km.

   This product is designed to provide a consistent time series of sea ice 
   concentrations (the fraction, or percentage, of ocean area covered by sea ice) 
   spanning the coverage of several passive microwave instruments. To aid in this 
   goal, sea ice algorithm coefficients are changed to reduce differences in sea 
   ice extent and area as estimated using the SMMR and SSM/I sensors. The data 
   are generated using the NASA Team algorithm developed by the Oceans and Ice 
   Branch, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes at NASA Goddard Space Flight 
   Center (GSFC).

   These data include gridded daily (every other day for SMMR data) and monthly 
   averaged sea ice concentrations for both the north and south polar regions. 
   The data are produced at GSFC about once per year, with roughly a one-year 
   latency, and include data since 26 October 1978. Data are produced from SMMR 
   brightness temperature data processed at NASA GSFC and from SSM/I and SSMIS 
   brightness temperature data processed at the National Snow and Ice Data Center 
   (NSIDC).

   Data are scaled and stored as one-byte integers in flat binary arrays. For 
   each data file, a corresponding PNG browse image file is provided. Data are 
   available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice/
   Description: Sea Ice Data at NSIDC
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://polynya.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html
   Description: Sea Ice Remote Sensing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0081.html
   Description: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations
End_Group
IDN_Node: USA/NASA
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 1996-01-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2014-02-11
Group: DIF_Revision_History

   Like NSIDC-0001, removed Temporal Coverage End Date to accurately reflect that 
   data processing is ongoing. 

End_Group