Entry_ID: GGD651
Entry_Title: Arctic EASE-Grid Freeze and Thaw Depths, 1901 - 2002
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Zhang, T., J. McCreight, and R.G. Barry
   Dataset_Title: Arctic EASE-Grid Freeze and Thaw Depths, 1901 - 2002
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2006-01-31
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd651.html
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Tingjun
   Middle_Name: Z
   Last_Name: Zhang
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2359 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology
      Address: UCB449
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: Colorado
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: R.
   Middle_Name: G.
   Last_Name: Barry
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: University of Colorado
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology
      Address: 449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Active Layer
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Land Surface
   Term: Frozen Ground
   Variable_Level_1: Active Layer
   Detailed_Variable: Freeze/Thaw Depth
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Geoscientific Information
Keyword: edaphic factor
Keyword: Freeze depth
Keyword: Freezing Degree Days
Keyword: Freezing Index
Keyword: Seasonal Thaw Layer
Keyword: Stefan solution
Keyword: Thaw Depth
Keyword: Thaw Depth Measurements
Keyword: Thaw Depths
Keyword: Thawing Degree-day
Keyword: Thawing Degree Days
Keyword: Thawing Index
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1901-01-01
   Stop_Date: 2002-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 50
   Northernmost_Latitude: 90
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Group: Quality

   The relationship between freeze/thaw depth and freezing and thawing indices 
   has been demonstrated in several places. For example, Brown et al. (2000) 
   review the relationship between thaw depth and the annual thawing index. 
   Romanovsky and Osterkamp (1995), Zhang et al. (1997), Nelson et al. (1998), 
   Klene et al. (2001), and Hinkel and Nelson (2003) all demonstrate the general 
   validity of the approach. Nelson et al. (1997) used the approach to map to map 
   active layer depth for the Kuparuk River Basin in Alaska. Zhang et al. (2005b) 
   also use the approach to map active layer depth in the Ob, Yenisey, and Lena 
   River Basins of Russia.

   The quality of the input freezing and thawing indices is described in 
   Frauenfeld, et al. (submitted) and in the documentation for the data set. The 
   investigators conclude they are adequate for broad scale analysis. The 
   difficulty lies in calculating the edaphic factors. There is some uncertainty 
   in the estimation of the edaphic factors as discussed in Zhang et al. (2005b). 
   Overall this approach is reasonable for broad scale calculations and for 
   estimating the response of freeze and thaw depth to different climatological 
   factors.

End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Originating_Center: FGDC
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: FGDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 479.4 MB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Brown, J., K. M. Hinkel, and F. E. Nelson. 2000. The Circumpolar Active Layer 
   Monitoring (CALM) program: Research designs and initial results. Polar Geogr., 
   24(3), 163-258.

   Frauenfeld, O. W., T. Zhang, and J. L. McCreight. Submitted. Climatology and 
   variability of the 20th century Northern Hemisphere freezing/thawing index. 
   International Journal of Climatology.

   Hinkel, K. M., and F. E. Nelson. 2003. Spatial and temporal patterns of active 
   layer thickness at Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites in 
   northern Alaska, 1995-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D2), 8168. 
   doi:10.1029/2001JD000927.

   Klene, A. E., F. E. Nelson, N. I. Shiklomanov, and K. M. Hinkel. 2001. The 
   N-factor in natural landscapes: Variability of air and soil-surface 
   temperatures, Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 33(2), 
   140-148.

   Knowles, K. 2004. EASE-Grid land cover data resampled from AVHRR Global 1 km 
   land cover, Version 2, March 1992 - April 1993. Boulder CO, USA: National Snow 
   and Ice Data Center. Digital Media.

   Mitchell T. D. and P. D. Jones. 2005. An improved method of constructing a 
   database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. 
   International Journal of Climatology 25, 693-712.  Nelson, F. E., N. I. 
   Shiklomanov, G. R. Mueller, K. M. Hinkel, D. A. Walker, and J. G. Bockheim. 
   1997. Estimating active-layer thickness over a large region: Kuparuk River 
   basin, Alaska, U.S.A. Arct. Alp. Res., 29(4), 367-378.

   Nelson, F. E., and S. I. Outcalt. 1987. A computational method for prediction 
   and regionalization of permafrost. Arct. Alp. Res., 19, 279-288.

   Nelson, F. E., S. I. Outcalt, J. Brown, N. I. Shiklomanov, and K. M. Hinkel. 
   1998. Spatial and temporal attributes of the active-layer thickness record, 
   Barrow, Alaska, U.S.A., in Lewkowicz, A. and M. Allard (editors). 1998. 
   Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Permafrost pp. 797-802, 
   Ste-Foy, Canada: Cent. d'Etudes Nordique, Univ. Laval.

   Romanovsky, V. E., and T. E. Osterkamp. 1995. Interannual variations of the 
   thermal regime of the active layer and near-surface permafrost in Northern 
   Alaska. Permafrost Periglacial Proc., 6, 313-335.

   Zhang, T., O. W. Frauenfeld, J. McCreight, and R. G. Barry. 2005a. Northern 
   Hemisphere EASE-Grid annual freezing and thawing indices, 1901 - 2002. 
   Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

   Zhang, T., O. W. Frauenfeld, M. C. Serreze, A. Etringer, C. Oelke, J. 
   McCreight, R. G. Barry, D. Gilichinsky, D. Yang, H. Ye, F. Ling, and S. 
   Chudinova. 2005b. Spatial and temporal variability in active layer thickness 
   over the Russian Arctic drainage basin. J Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, 
   D16101. doi:10.1029/2004JD005642.  Zhang, T., T. E. Osterkamp, and K. Stamnes. 
   1997. Effects of climate on the active layer and permafrost on the north slope 
   of Alaska, U.S.A. Permafrost Periglacial Proc., 8, 45-67.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set contains mean, median, minimum and maximum freeze and thaw 
   depths for each year from  1901 to 2002 on the 25 km resolution Equal-Area 
   Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) for areas north of 50  deg. Freeze and thaw 
   depths are estimated using a variant of the Stefan solution using an edaphic 
   factor  and freezing or thawing indices as inputs. The edaphic factor is 
   estimated based on different land surface  types; the freezing and thawing 
   indices are from Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid annual freezing  and thawing 
   indices, 1901 - 2002 (Zhang, et al. 2005).

   Two ASCII files are available for each year for freeze depth and thaw depth, 
   respectively. Each file is  approximately 25.6 MB in size. In addition, there 
   is one 10.5 MB ASCII file defining the latitude and longitude coordinates for 
   each grid point. The data set is available via FTP as three compressed files.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/ease/
   Description: All About EASE-Grid
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd649.html
   Description: Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices, 1901 - 2002
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2006-01-31
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2012-09-18
DIF_Revision_History: deleted dupe URLs in Related URL field