Entry_ID: G02202
Entry_Title: NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Meier, W., F. Fetterer, M. Savoie, S. Mallory, R. Duerr, and J. Stroeve. 
   Dataset_Title: NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2013-06-20
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Version: 2
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02202.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N55M63M1
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Walt
   Last_Name: Meier
   Email: walter.n.meier@nasa.gov
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
      City: Greenbelt
      Province_or_State: MD
      Postal_Code: 20771
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: F.
   Last_Name: Fetterer
   Email: fetterer@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: CIRES
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: 449 UCB
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Ruth
   Last_Name: Duerr
   Email: rduerr@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 735-0136 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, CU Boulder
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: 449 University of Colorado at Boulder
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: Colorado
      Postal_Code: 80027
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Julienne
   Last_Name: Stroeve
   Email: stroeve@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: CIRES
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Matthew
   Last_Name: Savoie
   Email: savoie@nsidc.org
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Sean
   Last_Name: Mallory
   Email: 	sean.mallory@nsidc.com
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: CIRES
      Address: NSIDC
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Technical Contact
   First_Name: NSIDC
   Last_Name: User Services
   Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
   Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
   Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
      Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
      Address: University of Colorado
      City: Boulder
      Province_or_State: CO
      Postal_Code: 80309-0449
      Country: USA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Sea Ice Concentration
End_Group
ISO_Topic_Category: Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere
Keyword: Antarctic
Keyword: Arctic
Keyword: Gridded Data
Keyword: Multiyear Sea Ice Concentration
Keyword: Passive Microwave
Keyword: Passive Microwave Data
Keyword: Passive Microwave Sea Ice Data
Keyword: Polar Stereographic
Keyword: Sea Ice Concentration
Keyword: Total Sea Ice Concentration
Sensor_Name: SMMR > Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
Sensor_Name: SSM/I > Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
Source_Name: DMSP > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F11 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F11
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F13 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13
Source_Name: DMSP 5D-2/F8 > Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F8
Source_Name: NIMBUS-7
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1978-10-26
   Stop_Date: 2007-12-31
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: -89.84
   Northernmost_Latitude: -39.36
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 31.1
   Northernmost_Latitude: 89.84
   Westernmost_Longitude: -180
   Easternmost_Longitude: 180
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: CONTINENT
   Location_Type: ANTARCTICA
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: ARCTIC
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: GEOGRAPHIC REGION
   Location_Type: POLAR
End_Group
Group: Data_Resolution
   Latitude_Resolution: 25 km
   Longitude_Resolution: 25 km
End_Group
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA @ NSIDC > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 1.8 - 3.5 MB
   Distribution_Format: NetCDF
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Andersen, S., R. Tonboe, L. Kaleschke, G. Heygster, and L. T. Pedersen. 2007. 
   Intercomparison of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Retrievals over the 
   High-Concentration Arctic Sea Ice. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C08004, 
   doi:10.1029/2006JC003543.

   Belchansky, G. I., and D. C. Douglas. 2002. Seasonal Comparisons of Sea Ice 
   Concentration Estimates Derived from SSM/I, OKEAN, and RADARSAT Data. Rem. 
   Sens. Environ., 81: 67-81.

   Carsey, F. D. (Ed.). 1992. Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice. American 
   Geophysical Union, 462 pp. Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson. Arctic and 
   Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Multichannel Passive-Microwave Satellite 
   Data Sets: October 1978 - September 1995 - User's Guide. NASA Technical 
   Memorandum 104647. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.

   Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of Sea 
   Ice Parameters with the NIMBUS-7 SMMR. J. Geophys. Res., 89(D4): 5355-5369.

   Comiso, J. C., and F. Nishio. 2008. Trends in the Sea Ice Cover Using Enhanced 
   and Compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR Data. J. of Geophys. Res., 113, C02S07, 
   doi:10.1029/2007JC0043257.

   Comiso, J. C., D. Cavalieri, C. Parkinson, and P. Gloersen. 1997. Passive 
   Microwave Algorithms for Sea Ice Concentrations: A Comparison of Two 
   Techniques. Rem. Sens. of the Environ., 60(3):357-384.

   Comiso, J. C. 1986. Characteristics of Arctic Winter Sea Ice from Satellite 
   Multispectral Microwave Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 91(C1): 975-994.

   Eaton B., J. Gregory, H. Centre, B. Drach, K. Taylor, and S. Hankin. 2010. 
   NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions Version 1.5. Programs 
   for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison. 81 pp. 
   http://cf-pcmdi.llnl.gov/documents/cf-conventions/1.5/cf-conventions.pdf. 
   Accessed Sep. 2011.

   Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of Melt Ponds on Arctic 
   Sea Ice. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C11): 24, 821-24, 835. Gloersen, P., W. J. 
   Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 
   1993. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive-Microwave 
   Observations and Analysis. NASA Spec. Publ. 511, 290 pp. Kwok, R. 2002. Sea 
   Ice Concentration Estimates from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry and 
   Openings from SAR Ice Motion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(9), 1311, 
   doi:10.1029/2002GL014787.

   Meier, W. N., M. Savoie, and S. Mallory. 2011a. CDR Climate Algorithm and 
   Theoretical Basis Document: Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration. NOAA NCDC 
   CDR Program.

   Meier, W. N., and S. J. S. Khalsa. 2011b. Intersensor Calibration between F-13 
   SSM/I and F-17 SSMIS Near-Real-Time Sea Ice Estimates. Geoscience and Remote 
   Sensing 49(9): 3343-3349.

   Meier, W. N. 2005. Comparison of Passive Microwave Ice Concentration Algorithm 
   Retrievals with AVHRR Imagery in Arctic Peripheral Seas. IEEE Trans. Geosci. 
   Remote Sens., 43(6): 1324-1337.

   Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 2003. Late 
   Twentieth Century Northern Hemisphere Sea-Ice Record from U.S. National Ice 
   Center Ice Charts. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C11): 3343. doi:10.1029/2002JC001623.

   Steffen, K., J. Key, D. J. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, K. St. Germain, 
   and I. Rubinstein. 1992. The Estimation of Geophysical Parameters using 
   Passive Microwave Algorithms, in 'Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice.' F.D. 
   Carsey, ed., American Geophysical Union Monograph 68, Washington, DC:201-231.

   National Research Council of the National Academies. 2004. Climate Data 
   Records from Environmental Satellites: Interim Report. National Academies 
   Press, Washington, D.C., 150 pp.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set provides a Climate Data Record (CDR) of sea ice concentration 
   from passive microwave data. It provides a consistent, daily and monthly time 
   series of sea ice concentrations from 09 July 1987 through through most recent 
   processing for both the north and south polar regions on a 25 km x 25 km grid. 

   The NOAA/NSIDC CDR is based on the recommendations from the National Research 
   Council (NRC) (2004). It is produced from gridded brightness temperatures from 
   the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of Special Sensor 
   Microwave Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave radiometers: F-8, F-11, and F-13.

   The NOAA/NSIDC CDR sea ice concentrations are an estimate of the fraction of 
   ocean area covered by sea ice that is produced by combining concentration 
   estimates created using two algorithms developed at the NASA Goddard Space 
   Flight Center (GSFC): the NASA Team algorithm (Cavalieri et al., 1984) and the 
   Bootstrap algorithm (Comiso, 1986). NSIDC applies the individual algorithms to 
   brightness temperature data from Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. (RSS).

   The data are gridded on the NSIDC polar stereographic grid with 25 x 25 km 
   grid cells and are available in netCDF file format. Each file includes four 
   different sea ice concentration variables: a variable with the primary CDR sea 
   ice concentrations created by NSIDC and three variables with sea ice 
   concentrations created by Goddard. 

   The three Goddard-produced sea ice concentrations are the Goddard NASA Team 
   algorithm sea ice concentrations, the Goddard Bootstrap sea ice 
   concentrations, and a merged version of the two sea ice concentrations. These 
   Goddard-produced sea ice concentrations are included in the data files for a 
   number of reasons. First, the merged Goddard NASA Team/Bootstrap sea ice 
   concentrations are an ancillary data set that is analogous to the NOAA/NSIDC 
   CDR data but that adds late 1978 through mid 1987 data to the record. A 
   different instrument, the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), 
   was the source for the brightness temperatures from this period. Sea ice 
   concentrations from the extended period are not part of the primary 
   NSIDC-produced CDR record because complete documentation of the SMMR 
   brightness temperature processing method is not available. Second, the 
   separate Goddard NASA Team and Bootstrap sea ice concentrations are provided 
   for reference.

   Variables containing standard deviation, quality flags, and projection 
   information are also included in the netCDF files.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/maise/index.html
   Description: Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent (MASIE)
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/masie/index.html
   Description: Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/index.html
   Description: Sea Ice Index
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0079.html
   Description: Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0001.html
   Description: DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0051.html
   Description: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I Passive Microwave Data
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2013-06-20
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-10-31
DIF_Revision_History:  Added a literature citation, no QC needed.