Entry_ID: G02177
Entry_Title: Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003
Group: Data_Set_Citation
   Dataset_Creator: Melling, H. and D. A. Riedel. 
   Dataset_Title: Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003
   Dataset_Release_Date: 2008-09-01
   Dataset_Release_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
   Dataset_Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Online_Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02177.html
   Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N58913S6
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Humfrey
   Last_Name: Melling
   Email: melling@ios.bc.ca
   Phone: 1 250 363-6552 x
   Fax: 1 250  363-6746 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address:  Institute of Ocean Sciences
      Address: Science Branch - Pacific Region
      Address: Institute of Ocean Sciences
      Address: 9860 West Saanich Road
      Address: P.O. Box 6000
      Address: Sidney, BC  V8L-4B2
      Address: CANADA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: Humfrey
   Last_Name: Melling
   Email: melling@ios.bc.ca
   Phone: 1 250 363-6552 x
   Fax: 1 250  363-6746 x
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address:  Institute of Ocean Sciences
      Address: Science Branch - Pacific Region
      Address: Institute of Ocean Sciences
      Address: 9860 West Saanich Road
      Address: P.O. Box 6000
      Address: Sidney, BC  V8L-4B2
      Address: CANADA
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Personnel
   Role: Investigator
   First_Name: D
   Middle_Name: A
   Last_Name: Riedel
   Group: Contact_Address
      Address:  Institute of Ocean Sciences
      Address: Science Branch - Pacific Region
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Depth/Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Cryosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Velocity
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Oceans
   Term: Sea Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Depth/Thickness
End_Group
Group: Parameters
   Category: EARTH SCIENCE
   Topic: Terrestrial Hydrosphere
   Term: Snow/Ice
   Variable_Level_1: Ice Velocity
End_Group
Keyword: Sea Ice
Keyword: Sea Ice Draft
Keyword: Sea Ice Drift
Keyword: Sea Ice Velocity
Sensor_Name: ADCP > Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
Sensor_Name: UPWARD LOOKING SONAR
Group: Temporal_Coverage
   Start_Date: 1990-04-01
   Stop_Date: 2003-09-30
End_Group
Data_Set_Progress: complete
Group: Spatial_Coverage
   Southernmost_Latitude: 70.083
   Northernmost_Latitude: 74.152
   Westernmost_Longitude: -133.828
   Easternmost_Longitude: -125.577
End_Group
Group: Location
   Location_Category: OCEAN
   Location_Type: ARCTIC OCEAN
   Location_Subregion1: BEAUFORT SEA
End_Group
Project: NOAA/NASA PATHFINDER > NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program
Data_Set_Language: English
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NSIDC
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Data_Center
   Data_Center_Name: NOAA @ NSIDC > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   Data_Center_URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/
   Group: Personnel
      Role: Data Center Contact
      First_Name: NOAA
      Last_Name: User Services
      Email: nsidc@nsidc.org
      Phone: 1 303 492-6199 x
      Fax: 1 303  492-2468 x
      Group: Contact_Address
         Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
         Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
         Address: University of Colorado
         City: Boulder
         Province_or_State: CO
         Postal_Code: 80309-0449
         Country: USA
      End_Group
   End_Group
End_Group
Group: Distribution
   Distribution_Media: FTP
   Distribution_Size: 0.004 - 50 MB
   Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)
End_Group
Group: Reference

   Amundrud, T., H. Melling and R.G. Ingram. 2004. Geometric constraints on the 
   evolution of ridged sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C06005, 
   doi:10.1029/2003JC002251.

   Amundrud, T.L., H. Melling, R.G. Ingram and S.E. Allen. 2006. The effect of 
   structural porosity on the melting of ridge keels in pack ice. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 111, C06004, doi:10.1029/2005JC002895. 

   
Birch, J.R., D.B. Fissel, H. Melling, K. Vaudrey, K. Schaudt, J.C. Heideman 
   and W. Lamb. 2000. Ice Profiling Sonar: Upward looking sonar provides 
   over-winter records of ice thickness and ice keel depths off Sakhalin Island, 
   Russia. Sea Technology (August), 48-53.

   Blasco, S.M., J.M. Shearer, P. Campbell, B. Wright and H. Melling. 2004. 
   Reduction in sea ice scour impact rates on the seabed 1979 to 2003, Canadian 
   Beaufort Sea. Eos Transactions 85(17), C43A-10. 

   Bowen, R.G. and D.R. Topham. 1996. A study of the morphology of a 
   discontinuous section of first year Arctic pressure ridge Cold Regions Science 
   and Technology 24, 83-100. 

   
Dumas, J., E.C. Carmack and H. Melling. 2005. Climate-change impacts in the 
   Beaufort shelf land-fast ice. Cold Regions Science and Technology 42, 41– 51. 

   
Dumas, J.A., H. Melling and G.M. Flato. 2007. Late-summer pack ice in the 
   Canadian Archipelago: Thickness observations from a ship in transit 
   Atmosphere-Ocean 45, 1 450105.

   Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, A. Graves, A. Mahoney, I. Rigor and H. Melling. 
   2005. Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: 
   Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions? Deep-Sea Research II 52, 
   3281–3302. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.006.  

   

   Falkingham, J., H. Melling and K.J. Wilson. 2003. Shipping in the Canadian 
   Arctic: possible climate change scenarios. CMOS Bulletin SCMO 31(3), 68-69. 
   Fissel, D.B., J.R. Marko and H. Melling. 2002. Identifying “skylites” for AUV 
   operations under pack ice: Insights from ice-draft profiling by moored sonar. 
   Proceedings Oceans 2002, Biloxi, Mississippi. October 29-31, 2002. 6 pp. 

    Fukamachi, Y., G. Mizuta, K.I. Oshima, H. Melling, D. Fissel and M. 
   Wakatsuchi. 2003. Variability of sea-ice draft of Hokkaido in the Sea of 
   Okhotsk revealed by a moored ice-profiling sonar in winter of 1999. 
   Geophysical Research Letters. Geophysical Research Letters 30(7), 2002GL016197.

   Galloway, J.L. and H. Melling. 1997. Tracking the motion of sea ice by 
   correlation sonar. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 14(3), 
   616-629. 

   Holt, B., C. Haas, H. Melling, S. Hendricks. 2007. Determining deformed sea 
   ice properties using multi-sensor observations. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52), Fall 
   Meet. Suppl., C11B-0431.  Kovacs, A., Weeks, W.F., Ackley, S. and Hibler, W.D. 
   III. 1973. Structure of a multiyear pressure ridge. Arctic 26(1): 22-31.

   Maykut, G.A. and Untersteiner, N. 1971. Some Results from a Time-Dependent 
   Thermodynamic Model of Sea Ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 76: 1550-1575.

   Melling, H., D.A. Riedel and Z. Gedalof. 2005. Trends in the draft and extent 
   of seasonal pack ice, Canadian Beaufort Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 32, 
   L24501, doi:10.1029/2005GL024483. 

   Melling, H. and D.A. Riedel. 2004. Draft and Movement of Pack Ice in the 
   Beaufort Sea: A Time-Series Presentation April 1990 - August 1999. Canadian 
   Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 238. (PDF 1.6 MB).   
   Melling, H. 2002. Sea ice of the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Journal 
   of Geophysical Research, 107(C11), 3181 Melling, H. 2007. The Thickness of 
   Arctic Pack Ice - Advances and Challenges. In, Arctic Climate Change - The 
   ACSYS Decade and Beyond. Chapter in monograph. Accepted.

   
Melling, H. 2000. Scientific interpretation of measurements of sea-ice draft 
   measurements by moored sonar. Joint Report on the 4th Session of the ACSYS Sea 
   Ice/Ocean Modeling (SIOM) Panel and the ACSYS Workshop on Sea-Ice Thickness 
   Measurements and Data Analysis, Monterey CA USA, 7-11 April 1997, P. Lemke & 
   R. Colony (editors). WMO/TD No. 991, World Meteorological Organization, 
   Geneva. A5.10, 5 pp.

   Melling, H. 2000. Sound scattering by sea ice: Aspects relevant to ice-draft 
   profiling by sonar. Joint Report on the 4th Session of the ACSYS Sea Ice/Ocean 
   Modeling (SIOM) Panel and the ACSYS Workshop on Sea-Ice Thickness Measurements 
   and Data Analysis, Monterey CA USA, 7-11 April 1997, P. Lemke & R. Colony 
   (editors). WMO/TD No. 991, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva. A5.11, 2 
   pp.

   Melling, H. 2000. Statistical processing of ice-draft observations from moored 
   sonar. Joint Report on the 4th Session of the ACSYS Sea Ice/Ocean Modeling 
   (SIOM) Panel and the ACSYS Workshop on Sea-Ice Thickness Measurements and Data 
   Analysis, Monterey CA USA, 7-11 April 1997, P. Lemke & R. Colony (editors). 
   WMO/TD No. 991, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva. A5.12, 3 pp.

   

   Melling, H. 1998a. Detection of features in first-year pack ice by synthetic 
   aperture radar (SAR). International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(6), 1223-1249.

   
Melling, H. 1998b. Sound scattering by sea ice: Aspects relevant to ice-draft 
   profiling by sonar. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15, 
   1023-1033. 

   
Melling, H. and D.A. Riedel. 1996. Development of seasonal pack ice in the 
   Beaufort Sea during the winter of 1991-1992: A view from below. Journal of 
   Geophysical Research 101(C5), 11975-11991. 

   Melling, H. and D.A. Riedel. 1996. The thickness and ridging of pack ice 
   causing difficult shipping conditions in the Beaufort Sea, Summer 1991. 
   Atmosphere-Ocean 34(3), 457-487. Melling, H. and D.A. Riedel. 1995. The 
   underside topography of sea ice over the continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea 
   in the winter of 1990. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(C7), 13641-13653. 

   
Melling, H., P.H. Johnston and D.A. Riedel. 1995. Measurement of the draft 
   and underside topography of sea ice by moored subsea sonar. Journal of 
   Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 12(3), 591-602. 

   Melling, H. and Riedel, D.A. 1993. Draft and Movement of Pack Ice in the 
   Beaufort Sea, April 1990 - March 1991. Canadian Technical Report of 
   Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 151.

   
Melling, H., D.R. Topham and D.A. Riedel. 1993. Topography of the upper and 
   lower surfaces of 10 hectares of deformed sea ice. Cold Regions Science and 
   Technology, 21, 349-369. 

   
Mullison, J. H. Melling, W. Johns and P. Freitag. 2004. The role of moored 
   current profilers in climate variability research. Sea Technology 45(2), 
   17-28. Richter-Menge, J., et al. 2006. State of the Arctic Report. NOAA 
   OAR Special Report, NOAA/OAR/PMEL, Seattle WA. 36 pp.

End_Group
Group: Summary

   This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of 
   sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The 
   data set spans April 1990 to September 2003. The data set was acquired to 
   assist in determining the character and recurrence of ice features hazardous 
   to offshore industrial activity, specifically for the exploitation of 
   hydrocarbon reserves and the impact of climate variability and change on the 
   Beaufort Sea ice regime. Observations were made using two types of 
   self-contained Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) moored near the sea floor: an Ice 
   Profiling Sonar (IPS) used to obtain ice draft data and an Acoustic Doppler 
   Current Profiler (ADCP) used to obtain the ice velocity data. The data are 
   provided in ASCII text format and are available via FTP.

End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/moored_uls/
   Description: Moored Upward Looking Sonar Data
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g02139.html
   Description: AWI Moored ULS Data, Greenland Sea and Fram Strait, 1991-2002
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g01359.html
   Description: AWI Moored ULS Data, Weddell Sea (1990-1998)
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g01360.html
   Description: Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics
End_Group
Group: Related_URL
   Group: URL_Content_Type
      Type: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
   End_Group
   URL: http://nsidc.org/data/g01962.html
   Description: The Environmental Working Group (EWG) Joint U.S.-Russian Arctic Sea Ice Atlas
End_Group
Metadata_Name: CEOS IDN DIF
Metadata_Version: 9.7
DIF_Creation_Date: 2008-09-01
Last_DIF_Revision_Date: 2013-03-12
DIF_Revision_History:  Added DOI to metadata record