Orsi, A. and U. Ryan. 2001. Locations of the various fronts in the Southern Ocean. Kingston, Tasmania Australia: Australian Antarctic Data Centre. Digital media. Accessed 28 September 2006.

Background: The Subtropical Front (STF) is considered the northern limit of the Subantarctic Surface Waters (SSW) and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). This marks the boundary between warm, salty subtropical waters (generally with a salinity of greater than 34.9 parts per thousand) and fresher, cooler subpolar waters.