Orsi, A. and U. Ryan. 2001. Locations of the various fronts in the Southern Ocean. Kingston, Tasmania Australia: Australian Antarctic Data Centre. Digital media. Accessed 28 September 2006.

Background: The Polar Front (PF) is sometimes used to define the boundary of the Antarctic region. The PF lies in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and is marked by a transition to very cold, relatively fresh, Antarctic Surface Water. It is characterized by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) near 5-6°C and a salinity minimum of 33.8-34.0 psu produced by high rainfall.